Intercultural Awareness at Fachhochschule Aachen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Intercultural Awareness an der Fachhochschule Aachen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Careful encoding

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

use words, pictures, gestures appropriate to receiver

avoid idioms and regional sayings

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Gender Egalitarianism

Lower

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> Few women are in positions of authority and power

> Women have lower status in society

> Women have little or no role in community decision-making

> Fewer women participate in labor force

> more occupational gender segregation

> fewer educational opportunities for women/literacy rates lower

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Power Distance

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

degree to which members of a collective expect power to be distributed equally

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Cultural variables

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

> Attitudes (ethnocentric and sterotypical --> noise)

- Socio-type: accurately describing members of a group by traits
> Social organization (nations, tribes, religious sects, professions)
> Thought patterns (logical prgession of reasoning)
> Roles (perception of manager´s role)
> Language (spoken or written; can be a barrier diffculty in understanding, local idioms, body language, poor translation)
> Non-verbal communication
> Time

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Sequential time vs. synchronous time

Sequential time

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

time is a series of passing events; more widespread; one activity at a time

strict appointments; following plans as they are laid out; not to deviate

Ex: Mexico, China, Venezuela

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Neutral vs. affective

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

emotional orientation in relationships

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Humane Orientation

Higher

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

> Other-interest is critical (family, friends, community, work, even strangers)

> Benevolence, kindness, and generosity are valued

> People are motivated by need for belonging and affiliation

> Family and personal relationships provide protection for the individual

> Paternalistic norms are expected (e.g., the boss as a benefactor who expects loyalty)

Phlipines, Ireland, Malaysia

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Uncertainty Avoidance

Low

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Highly mobile

The fewer rules, the better
Tolerate generalisation
Tolerate deviance

Seek individual opinions
Approve of risk taking

China, USA, Canada, UK, Scandinavia


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Uncertainty Avoidance

High

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employees tend to stay with their firms for a long time

resistant to organizational change

Formal rules required
Prefer details, specific plans
Less tolerant of deviant ideas
Consensus seeking
Minimise risk

Europe, Russia, S. America


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Power Distance

large/ high

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

employees believe supervisors are right even when they are wrong

employees do not take the initiative

Steep hierarchy
Unequal power distribution
Autocratic management style

Russia, China

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Masculinity vs. Femininity

Masculinity

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

emphasis on assertiveness
acquisition of money and status
achievement of visible and symbolic organizational rewards

Ego oriented
Money & achievement are important
‘Live to work’
Large gender wage gap
Fewer women in management
Failing is a disaster

Germany, China, USA, 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Masculinity vs. Femininity

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

degree of typical ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ values in a society (Deresky)

Potential Problems:

‘Achievement’

Motivation

Gender roles

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Q:

Careful encoding

A:

use words, pictures, gestures appropriate to receiver

avoid idioms and regional sayings

Q:

Gender Egalitarianism

Lower

A:

> Few women are in positions of authority and power

> Women have lower status in society

> Women have little or no role in community decision-making

> Fewer women participate in labor force

> more occupational gender segregation

> fewer educational opportunities for women/literacy rates lower

Q:

Power Distance

A:

degree to which members of a collective expect power to be distributed equally

Q:

Cultural variables

A:

> Attitudes (ethnocentric and sterotypical --> noise)

- Socio-type: accurately describing members of a group by traits
> Social organization (nations, tribes, religious sects, professions)
> Thought patterns (logical prgession of reasoning)
> Roles (perception of manager´s role)
> Language (spoken or written; can be a barrier diffculty in understanding, local idioms, body language, poor translation)
> Non-verbal communication
> Time

Q:

Sequential time vs. synchronous time

Sequential time

A:

time is a series of passing events; more widespread; one activity at a time

strict appointments; following plans as they are laid out; not to deviate

Ex: Mexico, China, Venezuela

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Neutral vs. affective

A:

emotional orientation in relationships

Q:

Humane Orientation

Higher

A:

> Other-interest is critical (family, friends, community, work, even strangers)

> Benevolence, kindness, and generosity are valued

> People are motivated by need for belonging and affiliation

> Family and personal relationships provide protection for the individual

> Paternalistic norms are expected (e.g., the boss as a benefactor who expects loyalty)

Phlipines, Ireland, Malaysia

Q:

Uncertainty Avoidance

Low

A:

Highly mobile

The fewer rules, the better
Tolerate generalisation
Tolerate deviance

Seek individual opinions
Approve of risk taking

China, USA, Canada, UK, Scandinavia


Q:

Uncertainty Avoidance

High

A:

employees tend to stay with their firms for a long time

resistant to organizational change

Formal rules required
Prefer details, specific plans
Less tolerant of deviant ideas
Consensus seeking
Minimise risk

Europe, Russia, S. America


Q:

Power Distance

large/ high

A:

employees believe supervisors are right even when they are wrong

employees do not take the initiative

Steep hierarchy
Unequal power distribution
Autocratic management style

Russia, China

Q:

Masculinity vs. Femininity

Masculinity

A:

emphasis on assertiveness
acquisition of money and status
achievement of visible and symbolic organizational rewards

Ego oriented
Money & achievement are important
‘Live to work’
Large gender wage gap
Fewer women in management
Failing is a disaster

Germany, China, USA, 


Q:

Masculinity vs. Femininity

A:

degree of typical ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ values in a society (Deresky)

Potential Problems:

‘Achievement’

Motivation

Gender roles

Intercultural Awareness

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