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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

2. What are the six characteristics that distinguish moral standards? Why is each of them
necessary to define moral standards in general?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Harm, Authority, Priority, Impartiality, Emotions Universality

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

4. How do moral obligations apply to business organizations? Can companies be held
accountable for what they do, or are the individuals who make up the company the
ones we must hold accountable?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

I believe yes. Large companies are powerful players on the market and in politics.

Companies are fundamentally responsible actors

Companies can take a moral stand. For example only with the status quo envrioment protection is only possible with companies that act morally


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

6. What is wrong with the thought that abiding by the law is all the ethics that a
businessperson needs to worry about?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Law dont automaticly imply moral right action. For example

Not all laws are morally defensible (ex. laws requiring racial segregation
and discrimination).
• Not all immoral behavior can be made illegal (ex. Although, it is immoral to
lie, this does not mean that all lying should be made illegal)
• Behaviors that are not, in themselves, unethical can become unethical
because of laws that are passed (ex. the obligation to pay one’s income
tax).

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Exercise: Moral Relativism

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What would an ethical relativist advise the manager of
a multinational corporation who works in a society
whose moral standards are different from her/his own?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Morality

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Morality = Consists of rules of human behavior and specifies that certain
actions are wrong / immoral and that others are right / moral
 Moral Standards = Norms about the kinds of actions that are morally
right and wrong, as well as the values placed on what is morally good or
bad (i.e. welfare, duty, rights, fairness, honesty, dignity, and integrity).
 Non-Moral Standards: The standards by which we judge what is good or
bad and right or wrong in a non-moral way.
 Examples: standards of etiquette, law, aesthetics

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A person starts to do ethics when he / she takes the moral standards
absorbed from family, church, friends and asks:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• What do these standards imply for the situations in which I find myself?
• Do these standards really make sense?
• What are the reasons for or against these standards? Why should I continue
to believe in them?
• What can be said in their favor and what can be said against them?
• Are they really reasonable for me to hold? Are their implications in this or
that particular situation reasonable?

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the aim of business ethics?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Not defense of the status quo; nor its radical change.
• Rather, it should
 serve to remedy those aspects or structures needing change
 protect those that are moral

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Subjective and Objective Morality

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

There are no ethical standards that are absolutely true and that apply or
should be applied to the companies and people of all societies.
• When two people or cultures hold different moral views of an action, both
can be right.
• An action may be right for one person or society, and the same action, taken
in the same way, may be wrong for another person or society.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Veil of Ignorance. What three principles would people choose to govern society if they had to choose from
behind such a “veil of ignorance”? Also give reasons.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why do people choose these principles

?

1.

Principle of equal liberty is chosen because people want to be free to

pursue their major special interests

2.

Principle of difference is chosen because everyone will want to protect

him --/herself against the possibility of ending in the worst position

3.

Principle of equal opportunity is chosen because everyone will want to

protect his/her interest should he/she be talented

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Subjective and Objective Morality

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Eternal moral values and principles that are always applicable in all
situations.
• Some moral standards are found in all societies
• Relativism with incoherent consequences
• Moral differences do not logically imply relativism

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the distinction between ethics and morality? Discuss the different meanings of
the word "ethics," and come up with examples that elucidate the distinctions btw. these
definitions.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The word "moral" is derived from the Latin "mos" and means translated as "custom" or "regulation". This means that a moral provides people with a concrete framework for appropriate behavior. An example of this are the Ten Commandments like "Thou shalt not kill. However, a moral concept in itself does not necessarily mean that people also follow it.


The word "ethics," on the other hand, is derived from the Greek "ethos" and means character. In contrast to morality, ethics is not about a code of conduct per se but about the analysis of different moral concepts. It is the science of morality and deals with questions like "Is stealing always wrong?" or "When is lying acceptable?

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

During the 1980s, the state-owned operator Telecom SA was the only company
operating in the South African market for fixed telephony. With the upcoming of
mobile telephony during the 1990s the South African government considered
issuing three licenses to three different operators for the provision of mobile
telephony. Telecom SA’s management did not agree and asked the government
to issue only one license to Telecom SA. The management argued that
decreasing turnover and profits in the fixed telephony sector could only be offset
if they would become the only operator in mobile telephony. In that case the
company would be able to keep all jobs. If not, they would need to dismiss 20%
of their employees.
Given that there are four basic types of moral approaches - utilitarianism, rights,
justice, and caring - to what extend do these moral approaches provide support
for and against the arguments of Telecom SA to become the only operator?
Please reason your answer!

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Utilitarianism: More worth without a monopol, many people get satisfied cause of cheaper price caused through competition. creation of jobs in other companies. better products through competition

Justice: Monopol is against the right of property of the other companies and against an open market.

Justice: in case of the employees of the company it right, that they argue in this way. so they can upheld every job and dont have to decide whom of the employees have to go. But in case of the whole market a monopol isn't a fair destribution in any kind (capitalism, liberatism, sociallism, ..)

Care: Justice of Care support this argue, cause the Company wants to protect their employees.


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Q:

2. What are the six characteristics that distinguish moral standards? Why is each of them
necessary to define moral standards in general?

A:

Harm, Authority, Priority, Impartiality, Emotions Universality

Q:

4. How do moral obligations apply to business organizations? Can companies be held
accountable for what they do, or are the individuals who make up the company the
ones we must hold accountable?

A:

I believe yes. Large companies are powerful players on the market and in politics.

Companies are fundamentally responsible actors

Companies can take a moral stand. For example only with the status quo envrioment protection is only possible with companies that act morally


Q:

6. What is wrong with the thought that abiding by the law is all the ethics that a
businessperson needs to worry about?

A:

Law dont automaticly imply moral right action. For example

Not all laws are morally defensible (ex. laws requiring racial segregation
and discrimination).
• Not all immoral behavior can be made illegal (ex. Although, it is immoral to
lie, this does not mean that all lying should be made illegal)
• Behaviors that are not, in themselves, unethical can become unethical
because of laws that are passed (ex. the obligation to pay one’s income
tax).

Q:

Exercise: Moral Relativism

A:

What would an ethical relativist advise the manager of
a multinational corporation who works in a society
whose moral standards are different from her/his own?

Q:

Morality

A:

Morality = Consists of rules of human behavior and specifies that certain
actions are wrong / immoral and that others are right / moral
 Moral Standards = Norms about the kinds of actions that are morally
right and wrong, as well as the values placed on what is morally good or
bad (i.e. welfare, duty, rights, fairness, honesty, dignity, and integrity).
 Non-Moral Standards: The standards by which we judge what is good or
bad and right or wrong in a non-moral way.
 Examples: standards of etiquette, law, aesthetics

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

A person starts to do ethics when he / she takes the moral standards
absorbed from family, church, friends and asks:

A:

• What do these standards imply for the situations in which I find myself?
• Do these standards really make sense?
• What are the reasons for or against these standards? Why should I continue
to believe in them?
• What can be said in their favor and what can be said against them?
• Are they really reasonable for me to hold? Are their implications in this or
that particular situation reasonable?

Q:

What is the aim of business ethics?

A:

Not defense of the status quo; nor its radical change.
• Rather, it should
 serve to remedy those aspects or structures needing change
 protect those that are moral

Q:

Subjective and Objective Morality

A:

There are no ethical standards that are absolutely true and that apply or
should be applied to the companies and people of all societies.
• When two people or cultures hold different moral views of an action, both
can be right.
• An action may be right for one person or society, and the same action, taken
in the same way, may be wrong for another person or society.

Q:

Veil of Ignorance. What three principles would people choose to govern society if they had to choose from
behind such a “veil of ignorance”? Also give reasons.

A:

Why do people choose these principles

?

1.

Principle of equal liberty is chosen because people want to be free to

pursue their major special interests

2.

Principle of difference is chosen because everyone will want to protect

him --/herself against the possibility of ending in the worst position

3.

Principle of equal opportunity is chosen because everyone will want to

protect his/her interest should he/she be talented

Q:

Subjective and Objective Morality

A:

• Eternal moral values and principles that are always applicable in all
situations.
• Some moral standards are found in all societies
• Relativism with incoherent consequences
• Moral differences do not logically imply relativism

Q:

What is the distinction between ethics and morality? Discuss the different meanings of
the word "ethics," and come up with examples that elucidate the distinctions btw. these
definitions.

A:

The word "moral" is derived from the Latin "mos" and means translated as "custom" or "regulation". This means that a moral provides people with a concrete framework for appropriate behavior. An example of this are the Ten Commandments like "Thou shalt not kill. However, a moral concept in itself does not necessarily mean that people also follow it.


The word "ethics," on the other hand, is derived from the Greek "ethos" and means character. In contrast to morality, ethics is not about a code of conduct per se but about the analysis of different moral concepts. It is the science of morality and deals with questions like "Is stealing always wrong?" or "When is lying acceptable?

Q:

During the 1980s, the state-owned operator Telecom SA was the only company
operating in the South African market for fixed telephony. With the upcoming of
mobile telephony during the 1990s the South African government considered
issuing three licenses to three different operators for the provision of mobile
telephony. Telecom SA’s management did not agree and asked the government
to issue only one license to Telecom SA. The management argued that
decreasing turnover and profits in the fixed telephony sector could only be offset
if they would become the only operator in mobile telephony. In that case the
company would be able to keep all jobs. If not, they would need to dismiss 20%
of their employees.
Given that there are four basic types of moral approaches - utilitarianism, rights,
justice, and caring - to what extend do these moral approaches provide support
for and against the arguments of Telecom SA to become the only operator?
Please reason your answer!

A:

Utilitarianism: More worth without a monopol, many people get satisfied cause of cheaper price caused through competition. creation of jobs in other companies. better products through competition

Justice: Monopol is against the right of property of the other companies and against an open market.

Justice: in case of the employees of the company it right, that they argue in this way. so they can upheld every job and dont have to decide whom of the employees have to go. But in case of the whole market a monopol isn't a fair destribution in any kind (capitalism, liberatism, sociallism, ..)

Care: Justice of Care support this argue, cause the Company wants to protect their employees.


GR

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