Cancer Biology And Implantants (Tim W.) at Fachhochschule Aachen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Cancer Biology and Implantants (Tim W.) an der Fachhochschule Aachen

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What does homeostasis mean? Give an example relating to cancer prevention.

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Maintaining the healthy balance of physiological functions. For example, the maintenance of proliferation, faster for wound healing, slow in normal cases.

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What does metabolic autonomy in the context of cancer mean?


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Self-mediate growth and division without needing extracellular signals.

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FALSE or CORRECT:

All tumor cells are cancorous cells

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false.

Benign tumor: no metastasis (good Tumor)

Malign tumor: probability of building metastasis (bad tumor)


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Tim: At what stage do metastasis form?

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  • Stage 4 : Metastasis are formed (secondary tumor sites)
  • Stage 2 : First step of metastatic process 
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FALSE OR CORRECT:

Tumor cell lost their control of the apoptosis

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CORRECT.

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FALSE OR CORRECT

Cancer is a MULTISTEP procedure

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CORRECT

Example: hereditary adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a colorectal cancer

a) Mutation of both alleles of a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome

5, APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), causes increased cell growth.

b) Hypomethylation of the DNA leads to a benign tumor (adenoma class I).

c) Mutation of the chromosome 12 ras proto-oncogene allows cells to form a larger benign tumor (adenoma class II).

d) If both copies of DCC, a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 18, are lost, an even larger adenoma class III results.

e) Mutation of both p53alleles on chromosome 17 results in conversion to a carcinoma. 

f) Other gene losses result in the cancer metastasizing. g.Other paths are possible, but in all cases deletions of APC and mutations of ras occur before deletions of DCC and p53.

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FALSE OR CORRECT:

Benign tumor does not have capsule

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FALSE.

Many benign tumors do have a capsule (layer of ECM, wich seperates tumor from normal tissue)

Malign and benign tumor can have a capsule. No capsule means poor prognosis

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FALSE OR CORRECT:

Normal cells are transformed into a cancer cell by a multistep process including genetic/epigenetic changes, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

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CORRECT

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FALSE OR CORRECT:

 Neoplasia is reversible

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

FALSE

DNA damage and loss of e.g tumorsurpressorgenes is irreversible

Neoplasm: unusual growth compared to normal tissue/cells. (abnormal and excessive growth)


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Joel: How are the survival rates for early and advanced Leukemia patients after a stem cell transplantation?

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~50 % for early and ~30 % for advanced leukaemia

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FALSE OR CORRECT

 Breast implants might be harmful


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CORRECT

women with breast implants have a higher chance of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). Why? Unknown. 93-96 % women with ALCL does have breast implantats

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Which features are evaluated when grading breast cancer?


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Tubule formation Nuclear grade Mitotic rate

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Q:

What does homeostasis mean? Give an example relating to cancer prevention.

A:

Maintaining the healthy balance of physiological functions. For example, the maintenance of proliferation, faster for wound healing, slow in normal cases.

Q:

What does metabolic autonomy in the context of cancer mean?


A:

Self-mediate growth and division without needing extracellular signals.

Q:

FALSE or CORRECT:

All tumor cells are cancorous cells

A:

false.

Benign tumor: no metastasis (good Tumor)

Malign tumor: probability of building metastasis (bad tumor)


Q:

Tim: At what stage do metastasis form?

A:
  • Stage 4 : Metastasis are formed (secondary tumor sites)
  • Stage 2 : First step of metastatic process 
Q:

FALSE OR CORRECT:

Tumor cell lost their control of the apoptosis

A:

CORRECT.

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Q:

FALSE OR CORRECT

Cancer is a MULTISTEP procedure

A:

CORRECT

Example: hereditary adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a colorectal cancer

a) Mutation of both alleles of a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome

5, APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), causes increased cell growth.

b) Hypomethylation of the DNA leads to a benign tumor (adenoma class I).

c) Mutation of the chromosome 12 ras proto-oncogene allows cells to form a larger benign tumor (adenoma class II).

d) If both copies of DCC, a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 18, are lost, an even larger adenoma class III results.

e) Mutation of both p53alleles on chromosome 17 results in conversion to a carcinoma. 

f) Other gene losses result in the cancer metastasizing. g.Other paths are possible, but in all cases deletions of APC and mutations of ras occur before deletions of DCC and p53.

Q:

FALSE OR CORRECT:

Benign tumor does not have capsule

A:

FALSE.

Many benign tumors do have a capsule (layer of ECM, wich seperates tumor from normal tissue)

Malign and benign tumor can have a capsule. No capsule means poor prognosis

Q:

FALSE OR CORRECT:

Normal cells are transformed into a cancer cell by a multistep process including genetic/epigenetic changes, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

A:

CORRECT

Q:

FALSE OR CORRECT:

 Neoplasia is reversible

A:

FALSE

DNA damage and loss of e.g tumorsurpressorgenes is irreversible

Neoplasm: unusual growth compared to normal tissue/cells. (abnormal and excessive growth)


Q:

Joel: How are the survival rates for early and advanced Leukemia patients after a stem cell transplantation?

A:

~50 % for early and ~30 % for advanced leukaemia

Q:

FALSE OR CORRECT

 Breast implants might be harmful


A:

CORRECT

women with breast implants have a higher chance of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). Why? Unknown. 93-96 % women with ALCL does have breast implantats

Q:

Which features are evaluated when grading breast cancer?


A:

Tubule formation Nuclear grade Mitotic rate

Cancer Biology and Implantants (Tim W.)

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