Anatomie & Physiologie at Fachhochschule Aachen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Anatomie & Physiologie an der Fachhochschule Aachen

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The term _______ refers to an imaginary line that runs vertically through the center of the
body, dividing the body into two equal parts.

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median

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Name the three different types of capillaries and give one example of where to find them.

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--> responsible for gas exchange between tissue and blood
1. Continous Capillary – fat, muscles, nervous system
2. Fenestrated Capillary – endocrine glands, intestinal villi, kidney glomeruli
3. Discontinous Capillary – liver, bone marrow, spleen

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Describe the structure of the heart sceleton. What is its function?

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  • Consists of plate of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles. 
  • Fibrous rings around valves to support. 
  • Serves as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles. 
  • Provides site for muscle attachment.
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What is the mean arterial pressure and how can you calculate it?

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  • Average blood pressure in aorta. Normal values are 70 to 105 mmHg. 


  • MAP = CO (Cardiac Output) x PR (Peripheral resistance); CO = SV (blood volume) x HR (heartbead times) 


  • SV: Stroke volume of blood pumped during each heart beat 


  • HR: Heart rate or number of times heart beats per minute 


  • Cardiac reserve: Difference between CO at rest and maximum CO 


  • PR is total resistance against which blood must be pumped
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What is the refractory period?

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  • Absolute: cardiac muscle cell is completely insensitive to further stimulation 


  • Relative: Cell exhibits reduced sensitivity to additional stimulation
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Explain systole and diastole

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--> two phases of the cardiac circle 


  • Systole: ventricular contraction 
  • Diastole:  atrial contraction or relaxation
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Which three types of neurons exist? What are their major functions?

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  • Sensory neurons - detect stimuli 


  • Interneurons - relay sensory signals to brain then return message back to motor neurons. 


  • Motor neurons - pass message from brain to rest of body for muscle response
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Which part of the brain directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla?

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Thalamus 

--> the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. Relays
messages, is important for making decisions, controls body temperature.

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What is the function of the thalamus and where is it located?

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Relays messages, is important for making decisions, controls body temperature.
Located on top of the brainstem

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What is the reticular formation and why is it necessary?

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- in the brain stem

· Widespread connections
· Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness
· Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep

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Explain the function of Broca´s and Wernicke´s area. What happens if one of these areas is
damaged and how is this disease called?

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Broca (frontal lobe): production of speech/ speaking
Wernicke (temporal lobe): comprehension of speech/understanding
damaged: aphasia: difficulties in producing the motor movements of speech

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Where is the cerebellum located and what are its functions?

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· Behind the spinal cord
·Helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
· involved in nonverbal learning and memory
· if injured, cerebellum would have difficulty with walking, keeping balance and
shaking hands

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Q:

The term _______ refers to an imaginary line that runs vertically through the center of the
body, dividing the body into two equal parts.

A:

median

Q:

Name the three different types of capillaries and give one example of where to find them.

A:

--> responsible for gas exchange between tissue and blood
1. Continous Capillary – fat, muscles, nervous system
2. Fenestrated Capillary – endocrine glands, intestinal villi, kidney glomeruli
3. Discontinous Capillary – liver, bone marrow, spleen

Q:

Describe the structure of the heart sceleton. What is its function?

A:
  • Consists of plate of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles. 
  • Fibrous rings around valves to support. 
  • Serves as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles. 
  • Provides site for muscle attachment.
Q:

What is the mean arterial pressure and how can you calculate it?

A:
  • Average blood pressure in aorta. Normal values are 70 to 105 mmHg. 


  • MAP = CO (Cardiac Output) x PR (Peripheral resistance); CO = SV (blood volume) x HR (heartbead times) 


  • SV: Stroke volume of blood pumped during each heart beat 


  • HR: Heart rate or number of times heart beats per minute 


  • Cardiac reserve: Difference between CO at rest and maximum CO 


  • PR is total resistance against which blood must be pumped
Q:

What is the refractory period?

A:
  • Absolute: cardiac muscle cell is completely insensitive to further stimulation 


  • Relative: Cell exhibits reduced sensitivity to additional stimulation
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Explain systole and diastole

A:

--> two phases of the cardiac circle 


  • Systole: ventricular contraction 
  • Diastole:  atrial contraction or relaxation
Q:

Which three types of neurons exist? What are their major functions?

A:
  • Sensory neurons - detect stimuli 


  • Interneurons - relay sensory signals to brain then return message back to motor neurons. 


  • Motor neurons - pass message from brain to rest of body for muscle response
Q:

Which part of the brain directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla?

A:

Thalamus 

--> the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. Relays
messages, is important for making decisions, controls body temperature.

Q:

What is the function of the thalamus and where is it located?

A:

Relays messages, is important for making decisions, controls body temperature.
Located on top of the brainstem

Q:

What is the reticular formation and why is it necessary?

A:

- in the brain stem

· Widespread connections
· Reticular activating system (RAS) Maintains consciousness and alertness
· Functions in sleep and arousal from sleep

Q:

Explain the function of Broca´s and Wernicke´s area. What happens if one of these areas is
damaged and how is this disease called?

A:

Broca (frontal lobe): production of speech/ speaking
Wernicke (temporal lobe): comprehension of speech/understanding
damaged: aphasia: difficulties in producing the motor movements of speech

Q:

Where is the cerebellum located and what are its functions?

A:

· Behind the spinal cord
·Helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
· involved in nonverbal learning and memory
· if injured, cerebellum would have difficulty with walking, keeping balance and
shaking hands

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