Functional Neuroanatomy at ETHZ - ETH Zurich | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Functional Neuroanatomy an der ETHZ - ETH Zurich

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what components are part of the peripheral nervous system?

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cranial nerves and spinal nerves

it is subdivided into sensory and motor (visceral and somatic) components

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what components are part of the central nervous system?

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brain and spinal cord

the brain has different parts: 

cerebrum 

  • cerebral cortex
  • white matter 
  • basal ganglia

braistem

  • midbrain 
  • pons
  • medulla

diencephalon

  • Thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • Hypophysis

spinal cord 

cerebellum

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The visceral motor system can be broken down into two main divisions, which are they and what are their functions?

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sympathetic division

  • important for alert state/ when under stress
  • preganglionic Neurons are cholinergic
  • postganglionic Neurons are noradrenergic
  • ganglia are close to spinal cord

parasympathetic division

  • important for rest and digest session
  • pre- and post-ganflionic nerves are cholinergic
  • ganglia are close to organs
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What is the somatotopic organisation of the cortex?

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Humunculus:represented map in neural system

NOT proportional to size of body but rather proportional to importance of tasks the perform

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How can nervous system structure and functions be probed?

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anatomical tracing

  • IHC
  • FISH
  • GFP

electrophysiological recording

  • Field
  • Patch clamp
  • MEA

Brain imaging

  • MRI
  • PET
  • CT

Functional Lesioning

  • mechanical
  • pharmaceutical
  • opto-/chemogenetics
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are some important cell types of the somatosensory system?

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Mechanoreceptor

  • Meissner corpuscle
  • pacinian corpuscle
  • Ruffini's corpuscle
  • Merkel's Disk
  • Freenerve endings (beta-fibers: slow conducting, pain and temperature)

Muscle spindle: 

  • fast conducting axon, typ 1a and 1b
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How is the dorsal root ganglia organized?

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The dorsal root ganglia is divided into cervical thoracic and sacral -> each reports to brain from a certain region of the body

major somatosensory afferent input

Mechanosensory afferent fibers:

dorsal root ganglion cells -> spinal cord ipsilateral (same side) -> medulla crosses midline (contralateral side) -> change of synapse -> midbrain -> thalamus -> change of synapse -> cortex

pain and temperature afferent fibres: 

dorsal root ganglion cells -> spinal cord (contralateral side) -> change of synapse -> through medulla and midbrain -> thalamus -> change of synapse -> cortex

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What is a Dermatome?

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an area of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root (also divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral)

-> if there are any deficiencies the can be pinpointed to the spinal cord region

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What is a receptive field?

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region innervated by one sensory receptor neuron. Its stimulation activates specific region in cortex 

The fields are not constant, you can find lateral inhibition (reduction of activity of neighbour nerve -> probably for contrast purposes)

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What is proprioception?

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perception/ awareness of the position and movement of the body 

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What is plasticity?

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adaptability to change in its environment

The brain is adaptable: adjacent digits can compensate for the space -> bigger digits -> more stimulation

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Which fibers are needed to transmit pain perception?

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A delta: acute (fast transmitting) pain

C-Type: chronic (slow transmitting) pain

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Q:

what components are part of the peripheral nervous system?

A:

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

it is subdivided into sensory and motor (visceral and somatic) components

Q:

what components are part of the central nervous system?

A:

brain and spinal cord

the brain has different parts: 

cerebrum 

  • cerebral cortex
  • white matter 
  • basal ganglia

braistem

  • midbrain 
  • pons
  • medulla

diencephalon

  • Thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • Hypophysis

spinal cord 

cerebellum

Q:

The visceral motor system can be broken down into two main divisions, which are they and what are their functions?

A:

sympathetic division

  • important for alert state/ when under stress
  • preganglionic Neurons are cholinergic
  • postganglionic Neurons are noradrenergic
  • ganglia are close to spinal cord

parasympathetic division

  • important for rest and digest session
  • pre- and post-ganflionic nerves are cholinergic
  • ganglia are close to organs
Q:

What is the somatotopic organisation of the cortex?

A:

Humunculus:represented map in neural system

NOT proportional to size of body but rather proportional to importance of tasks the perform

Q:

How can nervous system structure and functions be probed?

A:

anatomical tracing

  • IHC
  • FISH
  • GFP

electrophysiological recording

  • Field
  • Patch clamp
  • MEA

Brain imaging

  • MRI
  • PET
  • CT

Functional Lesioning

  • mechanical
  • pharmaceutical
  • opto-/chemogenetics
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are some important cell types of the somatosensory system?

A:

Mechanoreceptor

  • Meissner corpuscle
  • pacinian corpuscle
  • Ruffini's corpuscle
  • Merkel's Disk
  • Freenerve endings (beta-fibers: slow conducting, pain and temperature)

Muscle spindle: 

  • fast conducting axon, typ 1a and 1b
Q:

How is the dorsal root ganglia organized?

A:

The dorsal root ganglia is divided into cervical thoracic and sacral -> each reports to brain from a certain region of the body

major somatosensory afferent input

Mechanosensory afferent fibers:

dorsal root ganglion cells -> spinal cord ipsilateral (same side) -> medulla crosses midline (contralateral side) -> change of synapse -> midbrain -> thalamus -> change of synapse -> cortex

pain and temperature afferent fibres: 

dorsal root ganglion cells -> spinal cord (contralateral side) -> change of synapse -> through medulla and midbrain -> thalamus -> change of synapse -> cortex

Q:

What is a Dermatome?

A:

an area of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root (also divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral)

-> if there are any deficiencies the can be pinpointed to the spinal cord region

Q:

What is a receptive field?

A:

region innervated by one sensory receptor neuron. Its stimulation activates specific region in cortex 

The fields are not constant, you can find lateral inhibition (reduction of activity of neighbour nerve -> probably for contrast purposes)

Q:

What is proprioception?

A:

perception/ awareness of the position and movement of the body 

Q:

What is plasticity?

A:

adaptability to change in its environment

The brain is adaptable: adjacent digits can compensate for the space -> bigger digits -> more stimulation

Q:

Which fibers are needed to transmit pain perception?

A:

A delta: acute (fast transmitting) pain

C-Type: chronic (slow transmitting) pain

Functional Neuroanatomy

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