Extrasolar Planets at ETHZ - ETH Zurich

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Exemplary flashcards for Extrasolar Planets at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

Define a Planet. 

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Define an Exoplanet

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How are the objects called how does not fulfill one of the exoplanets criteria? 
Define them. 
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Exemplary flashcards for Extrasolar Planets at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

Explain Zodiacal dust.  What are meteorites? 

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What are Transneptunian Objects? 

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What measuring techniques do you know, for detecting the Reflex Motion due to planets?

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Where is most of the mass of the solar System stored?

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Exemplary flashcards for Extrasolar Planets at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

For a system randomly oriented in space, is an inclination of i=90° or i=0° more likely? 

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What is the lower mass limit for Deuterium burning? 

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What is the lower Mass limit for a star? 

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What are the factors that make the detection of planets in the habitable zone around low mass stars easier and/or harder compared to solar-mass stars? 
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What is the main challenge finding planets with d=10-50 AU using techniques like RV and astrometry? 

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Exemplary flashcards for Extrasolar Planets at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

Extrasolar Planets

Define a Planet. 
  • Celestial body in an orbit around the sun
  • Has sufficient mass for self gracit
         - > nearly round shape
  • Has cleared neighborhood around its orbit 

Extrasolar Planets

Define an Exoplanet
  • Substellar object with an mass lower than the limiting mass for Deuterium-burning (~13 Mj) 
  • Object which orbits a star or stellar remnant
(Minimal Mass: As planets: Mass must be high enough for self gravity, nearly round shape)
(How the planet is formed does not matter) 

Extrasolar Planets

How are the objects called how does not fulfill one of the exoplanets criteria? 
Define them. 

Brown Dwarfs
Substellar Objects with masses big enough to burn Deuterium. (0.015 Msun - 0.08 Msun) / (15  Mj - 80 Mj) 
-> Bigger Mass then Exoplanet

Sub-Brown Dwarfs
Free floating objects with masses too low to burn hydrogen.
-> They do not orbit a star

Extrasolar Planets

Explain Zodiacal dust.  What are meteorites? 
There are interplentarty particles (~um bis mm) in the elliptical plane.
  • Originated from collision of asteroids & evaporating comets
  • Produces the Zodiacal light (forward scattering effect near the sun) & the Gegenschein

Meteor : large dust particle which penetrates into the Earth atmosphere, heats up & evaporates. 

Extrasolar Planets

What are Transneptunian Objects? 

TNO's: all objects that orbit the sun with an average distance larger than Neptune 
  • Pluto & Plutions: 2:3 resonance orbit with Neptune (Eris, Makemake)
  • objects in the Kuiper belt (30-55AU,  more than 100 000 objects with R>100km, total mass ~0.1 Earth Masses) 
  • Scattered disk objects further out

Extrasolar Planets

What measuring techniques do you know, for detecting the Reflex Motion due to planets?

  •  Radial Velocity (Periodic RV of the star with respect to the line of sight)
  • Astromeric Motion (Measuring the Periodic Motion with astromeric techniques)
  • Timing variations (Periodic Change of the Arrival time of an periodic Signal due to path variable)


Extrasolar Planets

Where is most of the mass of the solar System stored?

The sun (99%)

Extrasolar Planets

For a system randomly oriented in space, is an inclination of i=90° or i=0° more likely? 
For the most likely inclination, we look at the normal vector of the plane in which the planet rotates. 
If this vector is randomly oriented in space, it is more likely to see a high inclination i=90°. 
For low inclination like i=0° the normal vector has either to point directly towards or away from us. 
For high inclination many more orientations are possible (any directions perpendicular to our line of sight) 

Extrasolar Planets

What is the lower mass limit for Deuterium burning? 
~ 0.013 bis 0. 015 Msolar
Oder 13-15 Mjupiter

Extrasolar Planets

What is the lower Mass limit for a star? 
~ 0.08 Msolar
~80 Mjupiter

Extrasolar Planets

What are the factors that make the detection of planets in the habitable zone around low mass stars easier and/or harder compared to solar-mass stars? 
  • Shorter Periods in their habitable zone (shorter base line of observations) 
  • The RV-signal is higher (sensitivity of instruments is limited) 
  • Harder: low mass stars are often very active (age<1Gyr)
  • Harder: M-dwarfs are very faint in the visual wavelength range; Large telescopes & near IR wavelengths are required to investigate better M stars with high precession

Extrasolar Planets

What is the main challenge finding planets with d=10-50 AU using techniques like RV and astrometry? 
Orbital timescales at these seperations are in the order of decades to centuries, which makes both methods inefficient. 
Same applies for transits (also chance for the right allignement at these seperations is very low).

Thus direct imaging is the best to search for planets like this, especially if the host star is yound and nearby. 

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Planeten at

PHLU - University of Teacher Education Lucerne

VT Planung at

Hochschule München

Planung at

ZHAW - Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften

obere Extremität at

Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Upper Extremity at

Clarkson University

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