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Why are 2-socket servers used more than 1-socket servers in datacenters?

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Its a cost tradeoff and physical limitations are also considered (how much power you can bring to one rack).

2-socket servers are more space efficient and 4-socket servers are more than twice as expensive.

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Why are accelerators and FPGAs becoming more popular in datacenters?

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Because Moores Law is ending and general purpose computers aren't getting much faster.

And Machine Learning applications are getting more popular.

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What is a socket?

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A CPU chip slot in a server

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What are accelerators?

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Datacenter accelerators are defined as hardware designed and used to process visual data. It is a hardware device or software program that improves the overall performance of the computer. Datacenter accelerators help to increase consumer-driven data demand and increase the use of AI-based services to drive demand for AI-centric data centers. These accelerators improve data center performance.

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How fast is the internet in a datacenter?

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10 to 100 GbE (rising to 400 soon)

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What's typically faster to access for a server in a datacenter: remote memory or local disk?

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Remote memory

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Why is bandwidth of DRAM, DISK and FLASH more or less the same on the rack level?

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Because network is the bottleneck

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Whats the difference between high-end (brawny) and low-end (wimpy) cores?

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Low-end cores provide e.g. 2 times lower performance but are e.g. 5 times more power efficient.

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What are tiers?

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Software Systems are divided into different tiers

(tiers can be conceptual or real)

While the different tiers are a software engineering

concept, they have almost always appeared as a

result of changes in technology (computers,

hardware, or networking)

The notion of tiers will allow us to describe the

architecture of modern IT infrastructures abstracting

from the system details

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What is the key metric in datacenters?

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Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

It is made up of Capital Expenses (CAPEX) to build the datacenter and Operational Expenses (OPEX) to maintain the datacenter (energy, maintenance, employees)

CAPEX tends to dominate because most of the cost are the servers.

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Most of the time only 20%-40% of the CPUs of the servers in datacenters are utilized.

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True

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Why is the rack level disk bandwidth is higher than the local disk bandwidth?

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Parallel read-writes:

In the rack you have more than just a single disk and that means you can read/write in parallel.

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Q:

Why are 2-socket servers used more than 1-socket servers in datacenters?

A:

Its a cost tradeoff and physical limitations are also considered (how much power you can bring to one rack).

2-socket servers are more space efficient and 4-socket servers are more than twice as expensive.

Q:

Why are accelerators and FPGAs becoming more popular in datacenters?

A:

Because Moores Law is ending and general purpose computers aren't getting much faster.

And Machine Learning applications are getting more popular.

Q:

What is a socket?

A:

A CPU chip slot in a server

Q:

What are accelerators?

A:

Datacenter accelerators are defined as hardware designed and used to process visual data. It is a hardware device or software program that improves the overall performance of the computer. Datacenter accelerators help to increase consumer-driven data demand and increase the use of AI-based services to drive demand for AI-centric data centers. These accelerators improve data center performance.

Q:

How fast is the internet in a datacenter?

A:

10 to 100 GbE (rising to 400 soon)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What's typically faster to access for a server in a datacenter: remote memory or local disk?

A:

Remote memory

Q:

Why is bandwidth of DRAM, DISK and FLASH more or less the same on the rack level?

A:

Because network is the bottleneck

Q:

Whats the difference between high-end (brawny) and low-end (wimpy) cores?

A:

Low-end cores provide e.g. 2 times lower performance but are e.g. 5 times more power efficient.

Q:

What are tiers?

A:

Software Systems are divided into different tiers

(tiers can be conceptual or real)

While the different tiers are a software engineering

concept, they have almost always appeared as a

result of changes in technology (computers,

hardware, or networking)

The notion of tiers will allow us to describe the

architecture of modern IT infrastructures abstracting

from the system details

Q:

What is the key metric in datacenters?

A:

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

It is made up of Capital Expenses (CAPEX) to build the datacenter and Operational Expenses (OPEX) to maintain the datacenter (energy, maintenance, employees)

CAPEX tends to dominate because most of the cost are the servers.

Q:

Most of the time only 20%-40% of the CPUs of the servers in datacenters are utilized.

A:

True

Q:

Why is the rack level disk bandwidth is higher than the local disk bandwidth?

A:

Parallel read-writes:

In the rack you have more than just a single disk and that means you can read/write in parallel.

Cloud Computing

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