The Skeletal System at De La Salle University | Flashcards & Summaries

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What are the major functions of the skeletal system?

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  1. Support
  2. Protection
  3. Movement
  4. Storage
  5. Blood Formation
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What are the steps in intramembranous ossification?

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  1. Ossification center development 
  2. Calcification
  3. Trabeculae formation
  4. Periosteum development


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Short bones help __________ between long bones.

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transfer force

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The ____________ consists of
bones, as well as their associated 
connective tissues, which include 
cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

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Skeletal System

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These are strong bands of connective tissue, attach skeletal muscles to bones which allows for movement

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Tendons

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Some minerals in the blood - principally, ________________ - are stored in  
bone.


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Calcium and Phosphorus

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Many bones contain cavities filled with ___________, which produces blood
cells and platelets

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Red bone marrow

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True or False:

Adipose tissue is also stored within bone cavities. If needed, the lipids are released into the blood and used by other tissues as a source of energy.

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True

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These are strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to bones and hold them together

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Ligaments

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This category of bone is longer than they are wide. This shape enhances their function in the movement of appendages. 

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Long Bone

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True or False:

Most of the bones of the upper and lower limbs are long bones.

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True

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This category of bone is approximately as wide as they are long; examples are the bones of the wrist and ankle.

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Short bones

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Q:

What are the major functions of the skeletal system?

A:
  1. Support
  2. Protection
  3. Movement
  4. Storage
  5. Blood Formation
Q:

What are the steps in intramembranous ossification?

A:
  1. Ossification center development 
  2. Calcification
  3. Trabeculae formation
  4. Periosteum development


Q:

Short bones help __________ between long bones.

A:

transfer force

Q:

The ____________ consists of
bones, as well as their associated 
connective tissues, which include 
cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

A:

Skeletal System

Q:

These are strong bands of connective tissue, attach skeletal muscles to bones which allows for movement

A:

Tendons

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Q:

Some minerals in the blood - principally, ________________ - are stored in  
bone.


A:

Calcium and Phosphorus

Q:

Many bones contain cavities filled with ___________, which produces blood
cells and platelets

A:

Red bone marrow

Q:

True or False:

Adipose tissue is also stored within bone cavities. If needed, the lipids are released into the blood and used by other tissues as a source of energy.

A:

True

Q:

These are strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to bones and hold them together

A:

Ligaments

Q:

This category of bone is longer than they are wide. This shape enhances their function in the movement of appendages. 

A:

Long Bone

Q:

True or False:

Most of the bones of the upper and lower limbs are long bones.

A:

True

Q:


This category of bone is approximately as wide as they are long; examples are the bones of the wrist and ankle.

A:

Short bones

The Skeletal System

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Eine der The Skeletal System Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | De La Salle University

SUMMARY

The skeletal system consists of bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

Functions of the Skeletal System

  1. The skeletal system provides the major support for the body.

  2. Bone protects internal organs.

  3. Joints allow movement between bones.

  4. Bones store and release minerals as needed by the body.

  5. Bone marrow gives rise to blood cells and platelets.

Extracellular Matrix

  1. Bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments are connective tissues.

  2. Varying amounts of collagen, proteoglycan, organic molecules, water, and minerals in the matrix determine the characteristics of connective tissue.

General Features of Bone

There are four categories of bone: long, short, flat, and irregular.

Structure of a long bone

Long bones consist of a diaphysis (shaft), epiphyses (ends), and epiphyseal (growth) plates. The diaphysis contains a medullary cavity, which is filled with marrow, and the end of the epiphysis is covered by articular cartilage.

Histology of Bone

  1. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells.

  2. Osteocytes are bone cells located between thin sheets of extracellular matrix called lamellae.

  3. Compact bone tissue consists of osteons, which are composed of osteocytes organized into lamellae surrounding central canals.

  4. Spongy bone tissue consists of trabeculae without central canals.

Bone ossification

  1. Intramembranous ossification occurs within connective tissue membranes.

  2. Endochondral ossification occurs within cartilage.

Bone Growth

Bone elongation occurs at the epiphyseal plate as chondrocytes proliferate, enlarge, die, and are replaced by bone.

Bone remodeling

Bone remodeling consists of removal of existing bone by osteoclasts and deposition of new bone by osteoblasts.

Bone repair

During bone repair, cells move into the damaged area and form a callus, which is replaced by bone.

Bone and Calcium Homeostasis

  1. Osteoclasts remove calcium from bone, causing blood calcium levels to increase.

  2. Osteoblasts deposit calcium into bone, causing blood calcium levels to decrease.

  3. Parathyroid hormone increases bone breakdown, whereas calcitonin decreases bone breakdown.

General Considerations of Bone Anatomy

There are 206 bones in the average adult skeleton.

Axial Skeleton

The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.

Skull

  1. The skull consists of 22 bones: 8 forming the braincase and 14 facial bones. The hyoid bone and 6 auditory ossicles are associated with the skull.

  2. From a lateral view, the parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones can be seen.

  3. From a frontal view, the orbits and nasal cavity can be seen, as well as associated bones and structures, such as the frontal bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla, and mandible.

  4. The interior of the cranial cavity contains three fossae with several foramina.

  5. Seen from below, the base of the skull reveals numerous foramina and other structures, such as processes for muscle attachment.

Vertebral Column

  1. The vertebral column contains 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar vertebrae, plus 1 sacral bone and 1 coccyx bone.

  2. Each vertebra consists of a body, an arch, and processes.

  3. Regional differences in vertebrae are as follows: Cervical vertebrae have transverse foramina; thoracic vertebrae have long spinous processes and attachment sites for the ribs; Lumbar vertebrae have rectangular transverse and spinous processes, and the position of their facets limits rotation; the sacrum is a single, fused bone; the coccyx is 4 or fewer fused vertebrae.

Rib cage

  1. The rib cage consists of the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum.

  2. There are 12 pairs of ribs: 7 true and 5 false (2 of the false ribs are also called floating ribs).

  3. The sternum consists of the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process.

Appendicular Skeleton

The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles.

Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle includes the scapulae and clavicles.

Upper Limb

The upper limb consists of the arm (humerus), forearm (ulna and radius), wrist (8 carpal bones), and hand (5 metacarpal bones, 3 phalanges in each finger, and 2 phalanges in the thumb).

Pelvic Girdle

The pelvic girdle is made up of the 2 hip bones. Each hip bone consists of an ilium, an ischium, and a pubis. The hip bones, sacrum, and coccyx form the pelvis.

Lower Limb

The lower limb includes the thigh (femur), leg (tibia and fibula), ankle (7 tarsal bones), and foot (metatarsal bones and phalanges, similar to the bones in the hand).

Joints

A joint is a place where bones come together.

Fibrous Joints

Fibrous joints consist of bones united by fibrous connective tissue. They allow little or no movement.

Cartilaginous joints

Cartilaginous joints consist of bones united by cartilage, and they exhibit slight movement.

Synovial Joints

  1. Synovial joints consist of articular cartilage over the uniting bones, a joint cavity lined by a synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid, and a joint capsule. They are highly movable joints.

  2. Synovial joints can be classified as plane, saddle, hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, or ellipsoid.

Types of Movement

The major types of movement are flexion / extension, abduction / adduction, pronation / supination, eversion / inversion, rotation, circumduction, protraction / retraction, elevation / depression, excursion, and opposition / reposition.

Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System and Joints

  1. Bone matrix becomes more brittle and decreases in total amount during aging.

  2. Joints lose articular cartilage and become less flexible with age.

  3. Prevention measures include exercise and calcium and vitamin D supplements.

The Skeletal System

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