The Human Organism at De La Salle University | Flashcards & Summaries

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The normal, or average value of a variable.

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Set point

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This is the smallest level in Levels of Structural Organization and consists of atoms, chemical bonds, and molecules.

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Chemical level

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This is the process by which non-specialized cells change into specialized cells to perform a specific function, otherwise known as differentiation.

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Development

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Distal

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far from point of attachment

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Proximal

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close to a point of attachmentent

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This level is composed of different organs that work together collaboratively, performing similar functions

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Organ System Level

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This level consists of cells which are the basic units of life. Cells contain compartments and organelles to work and are composed of atoms and molecules

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Cellular Level

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The body is extremely organized. It knows to maintain the boundaries that
separate the internal from the external environments. Parts of an organism is
organized to have specific relationships with each other & interact to perform
certain life functions.

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Organization

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This is the formation of a new individual, as well as the formation of new cells
during growth and/or reparations.

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Reproduction

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This level requires all organ systems to work together 

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Organism Level

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This level is composed of a group of cells with similar structures and functions that work together. 

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Tissue Level

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This is the ability to detect and react to environmental changes both internal and
external.

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Responsiveness

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Q:


The normal, or average value of a variable.

A:

Set point

Q:

This is the smallest level in Levels of Structural Organization and consists of atoms, chemical bonds, and molecules.

A:

Chemical level

Q:


This is the process by which non-specialized cells change into specialized cells to perform a specific function, otherwise known as differentiation.

A:

Development

Q:

Distal

A:

far from point of attachment

Q:

Proximal

A:

close to a point of attachmentent

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Q:

This level is composed of different organs that work together collaboratively, performing similar functions

A:

Organ System Level

Q:

This level consists of cells which are the basic units of life. Cells contain compartments and organelles to work and are composed of atoms and molecules

A:

Cellular Level

Q:


The body is extremely organized. It knows to maintain the boundaries that
separate the internal from the external environments. Parts of an organism is
organized to have specific relationships with each other & interact to perform
certain life functions.

A:

Organization

Q:


This is the formation of a new individual, as well as the formation of new cells
during growth and/or reparations.

A:

Reproduction

Q:

This level requires all organ systems to work together 

A:

Organism Level

Q:

This level is composed of a group of cells with similar structures and functions that work together. 

A:

Tissue Level

Q:


This is the ability to detect and react to environmental changes both internal and
external.

A:

Responsiveness

The Human Organism

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Eine der The Human Organism Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | De La Salle University

SUMMARY

Knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to predict the body's responses to stimuli when healthy or diseased.

 Anatomy

  1. Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body.

  2. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by organ systems. Regional anatomy is the study of the body by areas.

  3. Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures, and anatomical imaging is a non-invasive method for examining deep structures.

 Physiology

Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of the body.

 Structural and Functional Organization of the Human Body

  1. The human body can be organized into six levels: chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.

  2. The eleven organ systems are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems (see  figure 1.3 ).

 Characteristics of Life

The characteristics of life are organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, development, and reproduction.

 Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the condition in which body functions, body fluids, and other factors of the internal environment are maintained within a range of values suitable to support life.

Negative feedback

Negative-feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

Positive feedback

Positive-feedback mechanisms make deviations from normal even greater. Although a few positive-feedback mechanisms normally exist in the body, most positive-feedback mechanisms are harmful.

 Terminology and the Body Plan

Body positions

  1. A human standing erect with the face directed forward, the arms hanging to the sides, and the palms facing forward is in the anatomical position.

  2. A face-upward position is supine and a face-downward one is prone.

Directional Terms

Directional terms always refer to the anatomical position, regardless of the body's actual position 

Body Parts and Regions

  1. The body can be divided into the head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs.

  2. The abdomen can be divided superficially into four quadrants or nine regions, which are useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain.

Planes

  1. A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right parts, a transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts, and a frontal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

  2. A longitudinal section divides an organ along its long axis, a transverse section cuts an organ at a right angle to the long axis, and an oblique section cuts across the long axis at an angle other than a right angle.

Body Cavities

  1. The thoracic cavity is bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm. The mediastinum divides the thoracic cavity into two parts.

  2. The abdominal cavity is bounded by the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles.

  3. The pelvic cavity is surrounded by the pelvic bones.

Serous membranes

  1. The trunk cavities are lined by serous membranes. The parietal part of a serous membrane lines the wall of the cavity, and the visceral part covers the internal organs.

  2. The serous membranes secrete fluid that fills the space between the parietal and visceral membranes. The serous membranes protect organs from friction.

  3. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart, the pleural cavities surround the lungs, and the peritoneal cavity surrounds certain abdominal and pelvic organs.

  4. Mesenteries are parts of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal organs in place and provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerves to organs.

  5. Retroperitoneal organs are found “behind” the parietal peritoneum. The kidneys, the adrenal glands, part of the pancreas, parts of the intestines, and the urinary bladder are examples of retroperitoneal organs.

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