Obesity at Coventry University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Obesity an der Coventry University

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What is obesity?
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-accumulation of excessive TRIACYLGLYCERIDES in adipose tissue (body fat)
 
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Where is the adipose tissue located ?
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Adipose tissue is located all over the body:
- under skin (subcutaneous fat) 
- packed around internal organs (visceral fat)
- between muscles, within bone marrow and in breast tissue
Women
Usually more subcutaneous fat with buttocks and thighs
Men
Usually more visceral fat leading to obesity around the middle of their abdomen.
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Why are male and female storage are different?
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This is due to the different sex hormones
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What is adipose tissue?
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Is a connective tissue that is mainly composed of fat cells called adipocytes.
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What are adipocytes?
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Energy storing cells that contain large globules of fat known as lipid droplets
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How is fat storage regulated?
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Fat storage is regulated by hormones :
- insulin
-glucagon
-cortisol
-catecholamines 
They can stimulate adipose tissue formation or release of fat from adipose tissue.
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What’s the difference between white and brown adipose tissue?
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White adipose tissue: (Predominant Type of Fat in Body)
plays endocrine and metabolic roles within the body.
 Made up of:
white and beige adipocytes and is located under the skin, around  internal organs and in central cavities of bones.
Main function: 
Store energy
Other functions:
Insulates body from extreme temperatures 
Cushion vital organs, secretes hormones ( leptin, oestrogen and cytokines) and biological factors 
Brown adipose tissue: (Fetal Life and Infancy)
Uses energy to generate heat through a process called non-shivering thermogenesis.
Made up of: 
Brown adipocytes and is located around upper back, above clavicles, and around vertebrae.
Main Function:
Generate heat 

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How is BMI calculated?
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Weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2) 
-BMI  does not directly relate weight to obesity due to the difference in height and BMI is used just as an indicator.
BMI over 25 defined overweight and over 30 as being obese says WHO.
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What are the pitfalls of BMI ?
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Does not take in to account:
 -% body fat of an individual.
-Muscle mass and bone density 
-frame size (bigger frame means more weight)
- Gender (female usually have more body fat than men)
- muscle mass drop and body fat rises (elderly    Lose weight)
-Race 
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what are alternatives to BMI?
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Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
Alternative include ratio of waist to hip circumference ( below 0.95 for men and 0.85 in women)
Relative Fat Mass (RFM)
Uses waist circumference 
Men : RFM =64 - (20 x height /circumference)
Women: RFM= 76 - ( 20 x height / circumference) 
Body Adiposity Index (BAI)
BAI = ( hip circumference/ height) ^ 1.5) -18
Hip circumference is in centimetres and height in metres 
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What is weight balance?
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Weight balance is weight stability when the output must equal the energy input (calories in food).
When input exceed the energy output weight gain occurs and continued, leads to obesity.
When the output is more than the input the weight is lost.
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What is energy input?
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The energy that the body receives comes from food and drinks consumed and measured in terms of calories also noted as kilocalories (kcal)
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Obesity Kurs an der Coventry University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
What is obesity?
A:
-accumulation of excessive TRIACYLGLYCERIDES in adipose tissue (body fat)
 
Q:
Where is the adipose tissue located ?
A:
Adipose tissue is located all over the body:
- under skin (subcutaneous fat) 
- packed around internal organs (visceral fat)
- between muscles, within bone marrow and in breast tissue
Women
Usually more subcutaneous fat with buttocks and thighs
Men
Usually more visceral fat leading to obesity around the middle of their abdomen.
Q:
Why are male and female storage are different?
A:
This is due to the different sex hormones
Q:
What is adipose tissue?
A:
Is a connective tissue that is mainly composed of fat cells called adipocytes.
Q:
What are adipocytes?
A:
Energy storing cells that contain large globules of fat known as lipid droplets
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
How is fat storage regulated?
A:
Fat storage is regulated by hormones :
- insulin
-glucagon
-cortisol
-catecholamines 
They can stimulate adipose tissue formation or release of fat from adipose tissue.
Q:
What’s the difference between white and brown adipose tissue?
A:
White adipose tissue: (Predominant Type of Fat in Body)
plays endocrine and metabolic roles within the body.
 Made up of:
white and beige adipocytes and is located under the skin, around  internal organs and in central cavities of bones.
Main function: 
Store energy
Other functions:
Insulates body from extreme temperatures 
Cushion vital organs, secretes hormones ( leptin, oestrogen and cytokines) and biological factors 
Brown adipose tissue: (Fetal Life and Infancy)
Uses energy to generate heat through a process called non-shivering thermogenesis.
Made up of: 
Brown adipocytes and is located around upper back, above clavicles, and around vertebrae.
Main Function:
Generate heat 

Q:
How is BMI calculated?
A:
Weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2) 
-BMI  does not directly relate weight to obesity due to the difference in height and BMI is used just as an indicator.
BMI over 25 defined overweight and over 30 as being obese says WHO.
Q:
What are the pitfalls of BMI ?
A:
Does not take in to account:
 -% body fat of an individual.
-Muscle mass and bone density 
-frame size (bigger frame means more weight)
- Gender (female usually have more body fat than men)
- muscle mass drop and body fat rises (elderly    Lose weight)
-Race 
Q:
what are alternatives to BMI?
A:
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
Alternative include ratio of waist to hip circumference ( below 0.95 for men and 0.85 in women)
Relative Fat Mass (RFM)
Uses waist circumference 
Men : RFM =64 - (20 x height /circumference)
Women: RFM= 76 - ( 20 x height / circumference) 
Body Adiposity Index (BAI)
BAI = ( hip circumference/ height) ^ 1.5) -18
Hip circumference is in centimetres and height in metres 
Q:
What is weight balance?
A:
Weight balance is weight stability when the output must equal the energy input (calories in food).
When input exceed the energy output weight gain occurs and continued, leads to obesity.
When the output is more than the input the weight is lost.
Q:
What is energy input?
A:
The energy that the body receives comes from food and drinks consumed and measured in terms of calories also noted as kilocalories (kcal)
Obesity

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