Chemistry Open Questions at Comenius University In Bratislava | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Chemistry open Questions an der Comenius University in Bratislava

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are products of glucose oxidation?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Glucoronic acid, gluconic acid ,(ox of these two) glutaric acid 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain significance of ethanol administration to a patient who is intoxicated by methanol ?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Ethanol acts as antidote to methanol poisoning because ethanol has much higher affinity for alcohol dehydrogenase than methanol 



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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain the term colligative properties of solution and write at least 3 processes based on these properties. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Which depend not o the structure but only on the number of solute particles 

Freezing point depression
Boiling point elevation 
Osmotic pressure 
Diffusion 
Dialysis
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Lactose is formed from which monosaccharides?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Galactose and glucose
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are classification of steroid hormones ?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Corticosteroids 
-Glucocorticoids
-Mineralcorticoids

2. Sex steroids 

-Androgen
-Gestagen
-Estrogens 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Explain feedback inhibition 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Feedback inhibition is the phenomenon where the output of a process is used as an input to control the behavior of the process itself, oftentimes limiting the production of more product. Although negative feedback is used in the context of inhibition, negative feedback may also be used for promoting a certain process.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Write the classification of biogenic elements according to their abundance. Write Elements which belong to individual subgroups 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Biogenic elements -Macroelements  and Microelements

Macrolements(99prozent of organism)
-Primary: O,H,C,N
-Secondary: Na,Ka,Ca,Mg,P,S

Microelements 
-Metals : Fe,Cu,ZI,Mn,Ni
-Non metals(trace elements): B,S,F,I,SE 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe the processes on which the metal toxicity is based. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
-oxidative damage to macromoleules 
- Binding to DNA
-Binding to the negative charged sites of the lipid membrane
-Binding to the functional group of amino acids in the side chains of proteins (- SH)
Substitution of essential for toxic metal ion 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is osmotic pressure? Write formula for calculation of the total osmotic pressure PI of the organism . Explain symbols used. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Pi=I.c.R.T
I=van hoff factor
c=amount of substance concentration
R= gas constant (8.314 j.k.mol)
T=temperature ( kelvin) 

osmotic pressure is minimum pressure which has to be applied to solution to prevent inward flow of solvent molecules
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Write the value of osmolarity Cosm and amount of substance concentration c of physiological NaCl solution, Explain isoosmotic (isotonic), hypertonic and hypotonic. 
 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Cosm NaCl=0,3 mol.l 

Isoosmotic= same osmotic pressure of solutions
Hypertonic= solution has higher osmotic pressure 
Hypotonic= solution has lower osmotic pressure 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are simple lipids?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Triacylgycerol
Waxes
Sterides
Fatty acids 
Higher alcohols and hydrocarbons
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Describe 3 reactions which are provided by triacylglycerols
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Lipid peroxidation( oxidative damage to fatty acids , mainly to lipid membrane )

fat rancidity(1.Bacterial hydrolysis of ester Groups 2. air oxidation of alleine double bonds)

hydrogenation ( addition of hydrogen to alkenes to form alliances, double bond becomes saturated, hydrogation of vegetable oils produces solid margarines ) 
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What are products of glucose oxidation?
A:
Glucoronic acid, gluconic acid ,(ox of these two) glutaric acid 
Q:
Explain significance of ethanol administration to a patient who is intoxicated by methanol ?
A:
Ethanol acts as antidote to methanol poisoning because ethanol has much higher affinity for alcohol dehydrogenase than methanol 



Q:
Explain the term colligative properties of solution and write at least 3 processes based on these properties. 
A:
Which depend not o the structure but only on the number of solute particles 

Freezing point depression
Boiling point elevation 
Osmotic pressure 
Diffusion 
Dialysis
Q:
Lactose is formed from which monosaccharides?
A:
Galactose and glucose
Q:
What are classification of steroid hormones ?
A:
1. Corticosteroids 
-Glucocorticoids
-Mineralcorticoids

2. Sex steroids 

-Androgen
-Gestagen
-Estrogens 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Explain feedback inhibition 
A:
Feedback inhibition is the phenomenon where the output of a process is used as an input to control the behavior of the process itself, oftentimes limiting the production of more product. Although negative feedback is used in the context of inhibition, negative feedback may also be used for promoting a certain process.
Q:
Write the classification of biogenic elements according to their abundance. Write Elements which belong to individual subgroups 

A:
Biogenic elements -Macroelements  and Microelements

Macrolements(99prozent of organism)
-Primary: O,H,C,N
-Secondary: Na,Ka,Ca,Mg,P,S

Microelements 
-Metals : Fe,Cu,ZI,Mn,Ni
-Non metals(trace elements): B,S,F,I,SE 
Q:
Describe the processes on which the metal toxicity is based. 
A:
-oxidative damage to macromoleules 
- Binding to DNA
-Binding to the negative charged sites of the lipid membrane
-Binding to the functional group of amino acids in the side chains of proteins (- SH)
Substitution of essential for toxic metal ion 
Q:
What is osmotic pressure? Write formula for calculation of the total osmotic pressure PI of the organism . Explain symbols used. 
A:
Pi=I.c.R.T
I=van hoff factor
c=amount of substance concentration
R= gas constant (8.314 j.k.mol)
T=temperature ( kelvin) 

osmotic pressure is minimum pressure which has to be applied to solution to prevent inward flow of solvent molecules
Q:
Write the value of osmolarity Cosm and amount of substance concentration c of physiological NaCl solution, Explain isoosmotic (isotonic), hypertonic and hypotonic. 
 
A:
Cosm NaCl=0,3 mol.l 

Isoosmotic= same osmotic pressure of solutions
Hypertonic= solution has higher osmotic pressure 
Hypotonic= solution has lower osmotic pressure 
Q:
What are simple lipids?
A:
Triacylgycerol
Waxes
Sterides
Fatty acids 
Higher alcohols and hydrocarbons
Q:
Describe 3 reactions which are provided by triacylglycerols
A:
Lipid peroxidation( oxidative damage to fatty acids , mainly to lipid membrane )

fat rancidity(1.Bacterial hydrolysis of ester Groups 2. air oxidation of alleine double bonds)

hydrogenation ( addition of hydrogen to alkenes to form alliances, double bond becomes saturated, hydrogation of vegetable oils produces solid margarines ) 
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