Sociology at Christ University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Sociology an der Christ University

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Migration
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Migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intentions of settling at least for six months at a new location. It is a relative permanent shift or relocation of almost all life aspects into and out of a specifies territory. 
Migration rate impacts national population growth in the place of origin and of destination. 
Migration leads and can even induce social change. People follow certain patterns and trends (e.g. highest Emigration from Asian Countries and highest Immigration to United States or Urbanization)
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Definition Social Demography
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It analyzes the relationship between economical, social, cultural, biological processes influencing population's compostition, size, and structutre. 
It USES demographic data and methods to describe, explain and predict social phenomena. Sociologists focus and study patterns and investigate specific indicators of change, like social-status composition and distribution of population studies. 
Moreover, social demography looks at the role of social institutions and its impact on demographic changes.
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Factors of mortality rate 
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  • Age distribution
  • Gender (women generally have a higher natural life expectancy than men, inherent biological advantage and behavioural differences)
  • Occupation
  • Income
  • Education, Literacy 
  • Medical facilities (hygiene standards, access to medicines, free health care system)
  • Improved sanitary infrastructure
  • Social welfare system (pension, health care)
  • Lifestyle 
  • Mental state (suicide rate, stress level)
  • Nutrition level (malnutrition)
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Fertility  
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It represents the reproductive performance of an individual and therefore, it shows the ability to conceive children. Hence it is limited to the women's childbearing year, onset of menstruation to menopause.
Fertility of a country is the incidence of childbearing in a country's population. 
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Total Fertility rate 
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It measures the average number of children per women or the number of children that the average women bears during her productive life period. 

2017: world bank data 2,4
highest fertility rate is 7 in the Republic of Niger and lowest is 1,1 in China
India: 2,2 
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Age-specific fertility rate 
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It measures the annual number of births to women of a specified age or age group group per 1,000 women in that age group 
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Crude birth rate 
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The annual number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population.


number of live births
---------------------------  *1000
society's total population
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How to calculate total fertility rate?
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By adding up all the age-specific birth rates for a population and multiplying by five. 
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Fecundity 
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physiological maximum potential reproductive output of an individual over its lifetime/ reproductive period. 
physical capability to produce
Can not be measured 
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General fertility rate 
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the number of births in a year divided by the number of women of childbearing age time 1000

number of births in a year
----------------------------- * 1000
numb of w of childbearing 
age
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Why is TFR a better index of fertility than the crude birth rate?
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It is independent of age structure of the population/ includes variations in age distribution of the population that directly affects the birth rate. And more refinded measure to compare fertility across populations. 
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Mortality 
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the incidence of death in a country's population
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Q:
Migration
A:
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intentions of settling at least for six months at a new location. It is a relative permanent shift or relocation of almost all life aspects into and out of a specifies territory. 
Migration rate impacts national population growth in the place of origin and of destination. 
Migration leads and can even induce social change. People follow certain patterns and trends (e.g. highest Emigration from Asian Countries and highest Immigration to United States or Urbanization)
Q:
Definition Social Demography
A:
It analyzes the relationship between economical, social, cultural, biological processes influencing population's compostition, size, and structutre. 
It USES demographic data and methods to describe, explain and predict social phenomena. Sociologists focus and study patterns and investigate specific indicators of change, like social-status composition and distribution of population studies. 
Moreover, social demography looks at the role of social institutions and its impact on demographic changes.
Q:
Factors of mortality rate 
A:
  • Age distribution
  • Gender (women generally have a higher natural life expectancy than men, inherent biological advantage and behavioural differences)
  • Occupation
  • Income
  • Education, Literacy 
  • Medical facilities (hygiene standards, access to medicines, free health care system)
  • Improved sanitary infrastructure
  • Social welfare system (pension, health care)
  • Lifestyle 
  • Mental state (suicide rate, stress level)
  • Nutrition level (malnutrition)
Q:
Fertility  
A:
It represents the reproductive performance of an individual and therefore, it shows the ability to conceive children. Hence it is limited to the women's childbearing year, onset of menstruation to menopause.
Fertility of a country is the incidence of childbearing in a country's population. 
Q:
Total Fertility rate 
A:
It measures the average number of children per women or the number of children that the average women bears during her productive life period. 

2017: world bank data 2,4
highest fertility rate is 7 in the Republic of Niger and lowest is 1,1 in China
India: 2,2 
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Q:
Age-specific fertility rate 
A:
It measures the annual number of births to women of a specified age or age group group per 1,000 women in that age group 
Q:
Crude birth rate 
A:
The annual number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population.


number of live births
---------------------------  *1000
society's total population
Q:
How to calculate total fertility rate?
A:
By adding up all the age-specific birth rates for a population and multiplying by five. 
Q:
Fecundity 
A:
physiological maximum potential reproductive output of an individual over its lifetime/ reproductive period. 
physical capability to produce
Can not be measured 
Q:
General fertility rate 
A:
the number of births in a year divided by the number of women of childbearing age time 1000

number of births in a year
----------------------------- * 1000
numb of w of childbearing 
age
Q:
Why is TFR a better index of fertility than the crude birth rate?
A:
It is independent of age structure of the population/ includes variations in age distribution of the population that directly affects the birth rate. And more refinded measure to compare fertility across populations. 
Q:
Mortality 
A:
the incidence of death in a country's population
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