Motivation To Work at Christ University | Flashcards & Summaries

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alderfer's ERG theory (1972) 
- simplifies maslow's theory by converting the 8 categories into just 3. 
- not a hierarchical approach, hence, people can be motivated by needs from more than one level at the same time. 
- the relative importance of these needs may change throughout our lives. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
existence needs:
  • the basic survival needs described in the first 2 levels of maslow's hierarchy; the physiological and safety needs. 
relatedness needs: 
  • the social and self-esteem needs. 
  • alderfer proposes that these can be divided into 2 - external and internal. 
  • our need for relatedness satisfies the external element of our self-esteem needs. 
growth needs: 
  • related to self-development and advancement. 
  • refers to the internal element of our needs and allows us to meet needs related to the self-esteem and self-actualisation needs in maslow's theory. 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
mcclelland's theory of achievement motivation (1965) 
-proposes that there are different needs that motivate people and that these differences are measurable.
- need for N-Ach can be measured with the use of the thematic apperception test (TAT). 
  • the TAT includes a series of ambiguous images which are asked to be interpreted. 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
need for achievement:
  • refers to the need to get things done, to achieve things and to be a success. 
  • driven to succeed and are highly motivated by challenges and appraisals. 
need for affiliation:
  • describes the need to be liked by others, to be accepted as part of a group, to put in effort into developing and maintaining social relationships.
  • tend to prefer working with others rather than alone, and are motivated by cooperative tasks. 
need for power:
  • illustrates the need to have an influence and control over others. 
  • motivated by the chance to gain status, prestige or to be looked up to by others. 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
evaluation - issues and debates 
(need theories)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
maslow's theory (criticisms)
  • difficult to support the notion that needs are organised in a hierarchical manner. therefore, could be used to argue that alderfer's approach may be more accurate. 
  • difficult to test the notion of self-actualisation and maslow's own work was based on a small number of people who he thought could be described as self-actualised. 
application to real-life: 
  • working to earn enough money to satisfy our physiological and safety needs. 
  • organisations must ensure ghay they meet these standards while employees are at work. 
  • workers should have breaks so ghat they can eat, drink and use the washroom regularly. 
  • organisations might ensure 'safety' by simply making certain that the building is safe. but on the other hand, 'safety' could also involve a complex set of safety procedures and the need for appropriate clothing and equipment. 
  • organisations may also attempt to provide for workers' social needs through the provision of social clubs or events. 
  • they might also provide education and training, rewards and bonus schemes to meet self-esteem needs. 
mcclelland's theory - application: 
  • could be used to help understand personal characteristics and to ensure that people are given roles that suit their particular need for achievement. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

what are projective tests ?
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
a personality test that uses ambiguous stimuli such as the TAT images. the response given to the stimuli is thought to reveal hidden emotions and conflicts which the individual projects onto the image. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
goal setting theory (1984)
- opposes mcclelland's idea that internal motives were largely unconscious and measurable only by projective tests. 
- locke (1981) suggested that goal setting was a key motivator in getting people to work hard and improve their performance. 
- locke and latham (1984) suggest that setting specific goals produces higher levels of performance than setting vague goals. 
- specific goals are harder to achieve and present a greater challenge which is said to make people try harder. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
clarity - goals should be clear, specific, unambiguos and measurable.
challenge - goals should be relevant and linked to rewards.
complexity - goals must be achievable within a specific time period.
commitment - goals must be understood and accepted in order to be effective.
feedback - goal setting must involve feedback on task progress and achievement. 
  • the importance of feedback in this model is crucial. 
  • feedback needs to be positive, constructive and should focus on the strategies used. 
  • this process should also allow for reflection by the individual rather than simply feedback from superior. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

SMART targets and 'backward goal setting' - what are they? 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
SMART targets: 
  • Specific 
  • Measurable 
  • Attainable 
  • Relevant 
  • Timescale 

backward goal setting - in which the individual is encouraged to work backwards from their end goal to determine the most appropriate way of reaching this goal.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
expectancy theory (vroom, 1964) 
- proposes that workers are rational beings whose decision making is guided by logical thought processes in which potential costs and rewards play a significant role. 
- recognises workers' performance is influenced by knowledge, skills, experiences, personality and ambitions. 
- claims that all workers can be motivated if there is a clear relationship between effort and performance. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
motivation = expectancy × instrumentality × valence 

expectancy:
  • the perception of how much effort relates to performance as well as a worker's confidence in what they are capable of doing. 
  • can be modified by the provision of additional resources or by training and supervision. 
instrumentality: 
  • the perception of how much effort will be rewarded and whether workers actually believe that they will be given the reward that has been offered.
  • instrumentality will be positively affected if the management makes sure that rewards are always given as promised. 
valence: 
  • the perception of the strength or the size of the reward as well as the extent to which this reward is needed or wanted. 
  • likely that a small reward will produce low motivation regardless of the values of expectancy and instrumentality. 
  • similarly, if the value of any one of the three is low, then overall motivation is likely to be low. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
equity theory (adams, 1963) 
- the social exchange theory predicts that people will weigh up what an action will cost them in terms of the benefits it will produce. 
- workers expect things to be fair; they expect pay, status and recognition to equate to the amount of effort that they put in. 
- the significant factor in equity theory is 'comparison with others'. if we perceive others as being treated better than us, then the perceived inequality will lead to decreased motivation. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • this theory suggests that workers bring certain things to the job, such as skills, qualifications, energy, enthusiasm and effort. these are referred to as input (I) which may be perceived or actual
  • workers expect certain things in return from their job, including - pay, recognition, involvement and many other benefits. these are referred to as outcomes (O) and again, these may be perceived or actual
  • key proposal of this theory - workers compare themselves with other workers in similar posts to check the fairness or the equity of their own position. if they believe that the situation they are in, is one of inequity , it can result in low motivation.  

two types of inequity: 
1) underpayment -
  • might be felt if you find out that someone else in the same post as you is being paid considerably more, despite being less experienced and qualified. 
  • in order to bring the situation back to equity, you could try to increase the outcomes of your job (eg. by asking for a salary increase) or you could try to decrease your input (eg. be less productive). 
  • other cognitive strategies that could be used - you decide that you had made an inappropriate comparison and so, find someone else to compare yourself with, or find some other way to distort the way inputs and outcomes are perceived. 
  • your last option is to leave and find another job. 
2) overpayment
  • might make you feel like you were being rewarded more than you deserved or at least, more than the people you were comparing yourself to. 
  • to bring the situation back to equity, you might decide to work harder as your input doesn't match the outcomes you receive. however, it is unlikely that you would look for outcomes that decreased the outcomes (eg. by asking for a pay cut). 
  • the same cognitive strategies could be used here too - compare yourself to different people or find some other way to distort the input/outcomes to reach a state of equity. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
evaluation - issues and debate
(cognitive theories)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • all three of the theories outlined here focus on the way that the individual perceives the situation that they are in, rather than the situation itself. 
application (overview)
  • all can be usefully and effectively applied to the workplace. but, if goals are are specific, measurable and achievable they will be more effective. 
expectancy theory - application
  • expectancy theory can also be applied in similar ways such as involving workers in the goal setting process, ensuring that rewards are appropriate and will be valued by workers. 
equity theory - application
  • equity theory demonstrates the importance of understanding the way that the individual makes sense of their role in comparison to others.

a field study conducted by martin and peterson (1987) provides supporting information for this theory. the results from the case show that:
  • when new workers in a retail environment were taken on at a lower pay scale than existing workers, they perceived underpayment inequity as they were being paid less than the other workers for doing the same job. 
  • however, existing workers did not perceive overpayment inequity as they were not comparing themselves to the new workers and maintained the comparisons they were making prior to the introduction of the new scheme. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
- ''people do work for money, but they work even harder for meaning in their lives. companies that ignore this fact are essentially bribing their employees and will pay the price in a lack of loyalty and commitment" (pfeffer, 1998) 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
 internal motivation: 
  • motivation that comes from within and include factors such as - enjoyment and a sense of satisfaction or achievement as motivators. 
  • this means that motivation comes from the actual performance of the task rather than from the potential rewards of completing the tasks. 
external motivation: 
  • external motivators create a sense of motivation because of an external reward such as - money, promotion and bonuses. 

different organisations might offer different types of motivators. these may vary according to the type of organisation it is. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
reward systems 
- they vary from organisation to organisation and can include: 
  • pay
  • bonuses
  • profit sharing
  • performance-related pay

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
pay - 
  • may be linked to performance such that the harder someone works, or the faster they complete tasks, the more money they can earn. 
bonuses - 
  • offered in addition to a salary and can be significant sums of money in some sectors. 
profit sharing - 
  • a percentage of the company profit is shared among all the workers. this gives workers a stronger sense of belonging to the organisation and can lead to increased motivation. 
  • may not be available in all organisations as not all are set up to make a profit. 

de waal and jansen (2011) 
  • a paper by de waal and jansen summarises a number of research findings in this area. 
  • they cite studies demonstrating that over half the growth in productivity in chinese state industries could be attributed to the use of bonuses and studies demonstrating the positive effect of performance-related pay. 
  • another set of research claimed that organisations paying their senior executives high performance-related pay scales maintained strong stock market presences. 
  • however, they also include contradictory evidence. they cite studies which demonstrate that in organisations with very high inequalities, there is also very high turnover of staff. this suggests that any gains in productivity shown by the high performers are outweighed by the costs to the low performers. 

research conducted by a numberof organisations in the UK on no relationship between the size of bonus payments and performance.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
non-monetary rewards 
- such rewards include praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging. 
- rewards and recognition are different: 
  • rewards are promised from the start and most employees have a clear understanding of how they will be rewarded, which may affect their extrinsic motivation. 
  • on the other hand, recognition is not promised from the start and is when a worker is recognised for their contributions or achievements. 
- not everyone is motivated by money and not all organisations are designed to be profitable. 
- there are several effective motivators that are not monetary, many of which are forms of positive reinforcement. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
praise, respect and recognition: 
  • come from other people and can be extremely motivating. this is not quite an external reward like money - this is a reward that makes you feel good about yourself. 
  • achievement of a difficult task or even simpler the completion of a task can lead to a feeling of empowerment. 
recognition:
  • can take many forms - at its simplest, may be the employer thanking an employee for a job well done. may be made more formal by the employee receiving a formal letter. 
  • more public forms of recognition might be through reward ceremonies or 'employee of the month' schemes. 
rose (1998)
  • estimates that around 75% of organisations in the UK had some form of non-monetary recognition scheme.
  • this was more commonly found in organisations that rely heavily on customer contact. 
advantages: 
  • can highlight desired behaviours and through recognition, create role models for others to imitate. 
  • recognition may be given immediately, strengthening the association between the behaviour and the consequence. 
  • evidence suggest that staff turnover can also be positively affected by such schemes. 
  • building positive effective relationships between managers and workers, making sure that workers know that they are appreciated and that their efforts are valued makes people more likely to stay and increase their satisfaction ratings. 
  • reed (a large UK based recruitment company) found that recognition was rated as the most important factor in achieving job satisfaction, whereas salary was rated sixth. 
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

alderfer's ERG theory (1972) 
- simplifies maslow's theory by converting the 8 categories into just 3. 
- not a hierarchical approach, hence, people can be motivated by needs from more than one level at the same time. 
- the relative importance of these needs may change throughout our lives. 
A:
existence needs:
  • the basic survival needs described in the first 2 levels of maslow's hierarchy; the physiological and safety needs. 
relatedness needs: 
  • the social and self-esteem needs. 
  • alderfer proposes that these can be divided into 2 - external and internal. 
  • our need for relatedness satisfies the external element of our self-esteem needs. 
growth needs: 
  • related to self-development and advancement. 
  • refers to the internal element of our needs and allows us to meet needs related to the self-esteem and self-actualisation needs in maslow's theory. 


Q:
mcclelland's theory of achievement motivation (1965) 
-proposes that there are different needs that motivate people and that these differences are measurable.
- need for N-Ach can be measured with the use of the thematic apperception test (TAT). 
  • the TAT includes a series of ambiguous images which are asked to be interpreted. 

A:
need for achievement:
  • refers to the need to get things done, to achieve things and to be a success. 
  • driven to succeed and are highly motivated by challenges and appraisals. 
need for affiliation:
  • describes the need to be liked by others, to be accepted as part of a group, to put in effort into developing and maintaining social relationships.
  • tend to prefer working with others rather than alone, and are motivated by cooperative tasks. 
need for power:
  • illustrates the need to have an influence and control over others. 
  • motivated by the chance to gain status, prestige or to be looked up to by others. 

Q:
evaluation - issues and debates 
(need theories)
A:
maslow's theory (criticisms)
  • difficult to support the notion that needs are organised in a hierarchical manner. therefore, could be used to argue that alderfer's approach may be more accurate. 
  • difficult to test the notion of self-actualisation and maslow's own work was based on a small number of people who he thought could be described as self-actualised. 
application to real-life: 
  • working to earn enough money to satisfy our physiological and safety needs. 
  • organisations must ensure ghay they meet these standards while employees are at work. 
  • workers should have breaks so ghat they can eat, drink and use the washroom regularly. 
  • organisations might ensure 'safety' by simply making certain that the building is safe. but on the other hand, 'safety' could also involve a complex set of safety procedures and the need for appropriate clothing and equipment. 
  • organisations may also attempt to provide for workers' social needs through the provision of social clubs or events. 
  • they might also provide education and training, rewards and bonus schemes to meet self-esteem needs. 
mcclelland's theory - application: 
  • could be used to help understand personal characteristics and to ensure that people are given roles that suit their particular need for achievement. 
Q:

what are projective tests ?
A:
a personality test that uses ambiguous stimuli such as the TAT images. the response given to the stimuli is thought to reveal hidden emotions and conflicts which the individual projects onto the image. 
Q:
goal setting theory (1984)
- opposes mcclelland's idea that internal motives were largely unconscious and measurable only by projective tests. 
- locke (1981) suggested that goal setting was a key motivator in getting people to work hard and improve their performance. 
- locke and latham (1984) suggest that setting specific goals produces higher levels of performance than setting vague goals. 
- specific goals are harder to achieve and present a greater challenge which is said to make people try harder. 
A:
clarity - goals should be clear, specific, unambiguos and measurable.
challenge - goals should be relevant and linked to rewards.
complexity - goals must be achievable within a specific time period.
commitment - goals must be understood and accepted in order to be effective.
feedback - goal setting must involve feedback on task progress and achievement. 
  • the importance of feedback in this model is crucial. 
  • feedback needs to be positive, constructive and should focus on the strategies used. 
  • this process should also allow for reflection by the individual rather than simply feedback from superior. 
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Q:

SMART targets and 'backward goal setting' - what are they? 
A:
SMART targets: 
  • Specific 
  • Measurable 
  • Attainable 
  • Relevant 
  • Timescale 

backward goal setting - in which the individual is encouraged to work backwards from their end goal to determine the most appropriate way of reaching this goal.
Q:
expectancy theory (vroom, 1964) 
- proposes that workers are rational beings whose decision making is guided by logical thought processes in which potential costs and rewards play a significant role. 
- recognises workers' performance is influenced by knowledge, skills, experiences, personality and ambitions. 
- claims that all workers can be motivated if there is a clear relationship between effort and performance. 
A:
motivation = expectancy × instrumentality × valence 

expectancy:
  • the perception of how much effort relates to performance as well as a worker's confidence in what they are capable of doing. 
  • can be modified by the provision of additional resources or by training and supervision. 
instrumentality: 
  • the perception of how much effort will be rewarded and whether workers actually believe that they will be given the reward that has been offered.
  • instrumentality will be positively affected if the management makes sure that rewards are always given as promised. 
valence: 
  • the perception of the strength or the size of the reward as well as the extent to which this reward is needed or wanted. 
  • likely that a small reward will produce low motivation regardless of the values of expectancy and instrumentality. 
  • similarly, if the value of any one of the three is low, then overall motivation is likely to be low. 
Q:
equity theory (adams, 1963) 
- the social exchange theory predicts that people will weigh up what an action will cost them in terms of the benefits it will produce. 
- workers expect things to be fair; they expect pay, status and recognition to equate to the amount of effort that they put in. 
- the significant factor in equity theory is 'comparison with others'. if we perceive others as being treated better than us, then the perceived inequality will lead to decreased motivation. 
A:
  • this theory suggests that workers bring certain things to the job, such as skills, qualifications, energy, enthusiasm and effort. these are referred to as input (I) which may be perceived or actual
  • workers expect certain things in return from their job, including - pay, recognition, involvement and many other benefits. these are referred to as outcomes (O) and again, these may be perceived or actual
  • key proposal of this theory - workers compare themselves with other workers in similar posts to check the fairness or the equity of their own position. if they believe that the situation they are in, is one of inequity , it can result in low motivation.  

two types of inequity: 
1) underpayment -
  • might be felt if you find out that someone else in the same post as you is being paid considerably more, despite being less experienced and qualified. 
  • in order to bring the situation back to equity, you could try to increase the outcomes of your job (eg. by asking for a salary increase) or you could try to decrease your input (eg. be less productive). 
  • other cognitive strategies that could be used - you decide that you had made an inappropriate comparison and so, find someone else to compare yourself with, or find some other way to distort the way inputs and outcomes are perceived. 
  • your last option is to leave and find another job. 
2) overpayment
  • might make you feel like you were being rewarded more than you deserved or at least, more than the people you were comparing yourself to. 
  • to bring the situation back to equity, you might decide to work harder as your input doesn't match the outcomes you receive. however, it is unlikely that you would look for outcomes that decreased the outcomes (eg. by asking for a pay cut). 
  • the same cognitive strategies could be used here too - compare yourself to different people or find some other way to distort the input/outcomes to reach a state of equity. 
Q:
evaluation - issues and debate
(cognitive theories)
A:
  • all three of the theories outlined here focus on the way that the individual perceives the situation that they are in, rather than the situation itself. 
application (overview)
  • all can be usefully and effectively applied to the workplace. but, if goals are are specific, measurable and achievable they will be more effective. 
expectancy theory - application
  • expectancy theory can also be applied in similar ways such as involving workers in the goal setting process, ensuring that rewards are appropriate and will be valued by workers. 
equity theory - application
  • equity theory demonstrates the importance of understanding the way that the individual makes sense of their role in comparison to others.

a field study conducted by martin and peterson (1987) provides supporting information for this theory. the results from the case show that:
  • when new workers in a retail environment were taken on at a lower pay scale than existing workers, they perceived underpayment inequity as they were being paid less than the other workers for doing the same job. 
  • however, existing workers did not perceive overpayment inequity as they were not comparing themselves to the new workers and maintained the comparisons they were making prior to the introduction of the new scheme. 
Q:
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
- ''people do work for money, but they work even harder for meaning in their lives. companies that ignore this fact are essentially bribing their employees and will pay the price in a lack of loyalty and commitment" (pfeffer, 1998) 
A:
 internal motivation: 
  • motivation that comes from within and include factors such as - enjoyment and a sense of satisfaction or achievement as motivators. 
  • this means that motivation comes from the actual performance of the task rather than from the potential rewards of completing the tasks. 
external motivation: 
  • external motivators create a sense of motivation because of an external reward such as - money, promotion and bonuses. 

different organisations might offer different types of motivators. these may vary according to the type of organisation it is. 
Q:
reward systems 
- they vary from organisation to organisation and can include: 
  • pay
  • bonuses
  • profit sharing
  • performance-related pay

A:
pay - 
  • may be linked to performance such that the harder someone works, or the faster they complete tasks, the more money they can earn. 
bonuses - 
  • offered in addition to a salary and can be significant sums of money in some sectors. 
profit sharing - 
  • a percentage of the company profit is shared among all the workers. this gives workers a stronger sense of belonging to the organisation and can lead to increased motivation. 
  • may not be available in all organisations as not all are set up to make a profit. 

de waal and jansen (2011) 
  • a paper by de waal and jansen summarises a number of research findings in this area. 
  • they cite studies demonstrating that over half the growth in productivity in chinese state industries could be attributed to the use of bonuses and studies demonstrating the positive effect of performance-related pay. 
  • another set of research claimed that organisations paying their senior executives high performance-related pay scales maintained strong stock market presences. 
  • however, they also include contradictory evidence. they cite studies which demonstrate that in organisations with very high inequalities, there is also very high turnover of staff. this suggests that any gains in productivity shown by the high performers are outweighed by the costs to the low performers. 

research conducted by a numberof organisations in the UK on no relationship between the size of bonus payments and performance.
Q:
non-monetary rewards 
- such rewards include praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging. 
- rewards and recognition are different: 
  • rewards are promised from the start and most employees have a clear understanding of how they will be rewarded, which may affect their extrinsic motivation. 
  • on the other hand, recognition is not promised from the start and is when a worker is recognised for their contributions or achievements. 
- not everyone is motivated by money and not all organisations are designed to be profitable. 
- there are several effective motivators that are not monetary, many of which are forms of positive reinforcement. 
A:
praise, respect and recognition: 
  • come from other people and can be extremely motivating. this is not quite an external reward like money - this is a reward that makes you feel good about yourself. 
  • achievement of a difficult task or even simpler the completion of a task can lead to a feeling of empowerment. 
recognition:
  • can take many forms - at its simplest, may be the employer thanking an employee for a job well done. may be made more formal by the employee receiving a formal letter. 
  • more public forms of recognition might be through reward ceremonies or 'employee of the month' schemes. 
rose (1998)
  • estimates that around 75% of organisations in the UK had some form of non-monetary recognition scheme.
  • this was more commonly found in organisations that rely heavily on customer contact. 
advantages: 
  • can highlight desired behaviours and through recognition, create role models for others to imitate. 
  • recognition may be given immediately, strengthening the association between the behaviour and the consequence. 
  • evidence suggest that staff turnover can also be positively affected by such schemes. 
  • building positive effective relationships between managers and workers, making sure that workers know that they are appreciated and that their efforts are valued makes people more likely to stay and increase their satisfaction ratings. 
  • reed (a large UK based recruitment company) found that recognition was rated as the most important factor in achieving job satisfaction, whereas salary was rated sixth. 
motivation to work

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