Leadership And Management at Christ University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für leadership and management an der Christ University

Greife auf kostenlose Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Übungsaufgaben und Altklausuren für deinen leadership and management Kurs an der Christ University zu.

TESTE DEIN WISSEN
evaluation - issues and debates 
(leaders and followers) 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
nature VS nurture debate: 
  • kouzes and posner argue the leadership is something that can be learnt rather than something which we are born with. 
  • by by exploring the personality characteristics of an individual, we can suggest different ways in which different types of people can be developed into successful leaders. 
individual-situational debate:
  • it should be possible to develop someone into the most successful type of leader based not only on their existing personality type and attitudes but also on the situation (group) which they are going to lead.
  • kelley shifts the focus from leaders to followers although does not directly address the question of whether followership qualities are born or made.  
  • kelley's work highlights the importance of the relationship between the leader and the situation; Hindi sketch the type of followers that the leader must lead. 
real-life applications: 
  • the work of danserau health for other by explaining the stages through which the leader-group member relationship follows. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
adaptive leadership 
- as organisations grow ever larger and more complex, it is possible to argue that traditional forms of leadership may be failing. 
- heifetz et al. (1997, 2009) introduce the concept of adaptive leadership. they define leadership as the 'art of mobilising people to tackle tough issues, adapt and thrive'. 
  • they argue that leadership itself has to change; that rather than leading by providing solutions, the leader of an organisation facing adaptive challenges must be able to shift the responsibility to the entire workforce.
  • the role of an adaptive leader is no longer to maintain and support the organisational norms and values, but to allow disorientation, conflict and challenge to create a new organisation that can survive. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

six key principles of adaptive leadership:

  • get on the balcony - an adaptive leader needs to see the whole picture and hence, needs to observe from above.
  • identify the adaptive change - not only does the leader need to identify the need for change, but also determine the nature and extent of it. 
  • regulate distress - adaptive change may cause both, stress and distress, to those who are experiencing the same. this cannot be avoided, but needs to be managed. the pressure should motivate, not overwhelm. 
  • maintain disciplined attention - the leader must be open to contrasting points of view. rather than avoiding/covering issues up, they should be able to confront them directly. 
  • give the work back to the people - an adaptive leader must recognise that everyone in the organisation has special access to information that comes only from their experiences in their particular role. 
  • protect voices of leadership from below - the leader needs to listen to voices in the organisation, to learn of impending challenges. 



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
differences between leadership styles 
- traditional leadership VS adaptive leadership
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
traditional leadership:
  • is about authority and issuing of directions to others 
  • is about maintaining organisational norms and traditions
  • makes use of the skills and competencies available
  • is about tried and tested solutions or directions based on prior experiences 
  • is useful in times of certainty

adaptive leadership:
  • is about helping others to find their inner authority 
  • is about challenging these norms and traditions, and exploring new ways of working 
  • pushes boundaries and attempts to extend skills and competencies
  • is about new solutions or new directions which have not been tested and have unknown outcomes 
  • is most useful in times of uncertainty
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
the three levels of leadership 
- introduced by james scouller in a book published in 2011. 
- the book explained how leadership presence can be developed and is sometimes referred to as the 3P model. 
- the 3P model includes three key elements: public leadership, private leadership and personal leadership. 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
public leadership:
  • concerns the behaviours required to influence groups of people in a public setting.
private leadership:
  • concerns the behaviours involved in influencing individuals in a private setting. 
personal leadership:
  • described as the inner level and relates to the leadership qualities shown by the individual. 
  • includes their skills and beliefs, but also their emotions, subconscious behaviours and their presence. 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
evaluation - issues and debates
(traditional and modern theories of leadership)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
nature VS nurture debate:
  • the great person theory would certainly be on the nature side of this debate, while the other theories may leave room for development of leadership skills. 
  • scouller, in particular, would argue that leadership presents can be developed but the arguments proposed by heifetz et al. also suggest that leadership needs to be able to adapt and change. 
individual VS situational debate:
  • the 3P model clearly showcases that different skills will be required for different situations, and therefore, supports the situational side. 
  • heifetz et al. argue strongly for the need sorry adaptive leadership particularly where the more traditional styles of leadership have failed. this allows us to consider whether some individuals may be better able to provide adaptive leadership as well as considering the extent to which personal leadership skills may be developed. 
usefulness and application:
  • the theories discussed have been applied in organisations all over the world. 
  • they make a significant contribution to the success or otherwise of a wide variety of organisations. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
leadership effectiveness 
- the theory of leadership effectiveness was proposed by fiedler (1967). it examines the interaction between the style of leadership and the situation.
- different leadership styles will be effective in different situations. this is not only because of the goals of an organisation, but also because different organisations will give their leaders differing amounts of power and control. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
least preferred co-worker scale:
  • this 16-item questionnaire asks leaders about the person with whom they work least well. 
  • fiedler assumed that everyone's LPC is probably equally unpleasant and so, the LPC is not about the least preferred co-worker, but rather about the person taking the test. 
  • the analysis of the answers determine whether the individual has a low LPC score and is task-oriented or a high LPC and is relationship-oriented. 
  • a task-oriented leader may give harsh ratings to their least preferred co-worker while a relationship-oriented leader might give more positive ratings to even their LPC out. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
universalist and behavioural theories 
- universalist theories of leadership look at the personal qualities/characteristics which are shared by great leaders. 
- great man theory (woods, 1913) argues that great leaders are born and not made. 
- considering the notion of a charismatic or transformational leader; someone with the charisma and the interpersonal skills to inspire and lead others. 
- such people tend to have excellent public speaking skills and high levels of confidence. may be described as 'visionaries' and are often unconventional in their approach. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
behavioural theories: 
look at the specific behaviours shown by leaders as opposed to the personal qualities of leaders. 
through further analysis, these behaviours were shown to fall into 2 distinct categories: 
  • initiating structure - includes allocating tasks to people, creating groups and defining their goals, setting deadlines and ensuring that they are met and making sure workers are working to a set standard. 
  • consideration - category of behaviours which are shown by expressing genuine concern for the feelings of the workers. such leaders establish a rapport with workers and show trust and respect. they listen to employees and improve performance by boosting self-confidence. 

a similar set of studies were conducted, which also produced 2 main types of behaviours shown by leaders: 
  • task-oriented behaviours - refers to behaviours which focus specifically on the task to be completed. leaders focus on the structure, will set targets and standards, supervise and monitor worker progress.
  • relationship-oriented behaviours - these focus on the well being of the workforce. leaders may spend time examining and understanding the interpersonal relationships between the workers and those between workers and managers. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
evaluation - issues and debates 
(leadership style) 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
individual-situational debate: 
  • fielder examines the relationship between the individual (leader) and the situation directly and makes the point that different leadership styles will be effective in different situations.
  • hersey and blanchard take this further and state that the leader must be able to fit the leadership style to the situation and that the mark of an effective leader is the extent to which they are able to do this. 
  • this has obvious applications to organisations, and organisations that recognise the importance of the 'fit' between the leader and the group and can appoint leaders with the skills required to adapt their behaviour will be most successful. 
application in real-life: 
  • muczyk and reimann highlight the difference between making a decision and ensuring that the decision is implemented. 
  • this may love organisations to recognise that as with leadership in general, there are many styles and these tell suit different situations and groups. 
  • ensuring that the right leader is in charge will ensure the successful completion of the task. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
leader-member exchange model (danserau et al, 1995) 
suggests that leaders can treat their followers in 2 ways: they may treat some of them as trusted followers and others more formally. 
- conveys that each follower should be understood as independent and each leader viewed as unique. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
the vertical dyad linkage theory claims -the relationship between a manager and their followers is developed through 3 stages.
role taking stage: 
  • this is where individuals become team members and meet their leader. 
  • leaders need to make expectations clear and team members need to make their skills and abilities evident to the leader so that they can determine how each person may contribute to the team. 
role-making stage:
  • members of the team become integrated into the team and begin work. this allows them the opportunity to further prove their skills as well as their ability to work with others.
  • the leader may then determine who becomes part of the in-group and who belongs in the out-group. 
role routinisation stage: 
  •  this is where in-group members and the leader engage in 'mutual and high quality leader and subordinate exchanges' which further develops their relationships. 
  • this can also lead to improvements within the group. 

study by erdogan et al. (2015) -
  • improvements within the group occur due to the out-group members attempting to communicate well with the in-group members as they're closely connected to the leader.
  • this may allowed them to achieve a move from the out-group to the in-group. 

danserau's individualised leadership model extends the theory by focusing on the one-to-one relationships between a superior and a specific subordinate, involving the supervisors investments in and returns from the subordinate, and the subordinates investments in and returns from the superior. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
followership (kelley, 1988) 
- followership refers to a role held by certain individuals in an organisation, team or group. 
- specifically, it is the way in which an individual actively follows a leader. 
- kelley (1988) claims that the success or failure of a group may not be solely down to the ability of a leader but may also be dependent on how well the followers can follow. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
4 main qualities of effective followers: 
  • self management - refers to the ability to think critically, be in control of one's actions and to work independently. it's important that followers manage themselves well as highly desirable to delegate tasks to these individuals.
  • commitment - refers to an individual being committed to the goal, vision or cause of a group, team or organisation. this is an important quality of followers as it helps keep one's morale and energy levels high.
  • competence - it's essential that individuals possess the skills and attitudes necessary to complete the goal or task. individuals high in this quality e often hold skills higher than the average coworker. further, these individuals continue their pursuit of knowledge by upgrading their skills through classes and seminars. 
  • courage - effective followers hold true to their beliefs and maintain ethical standards, even in the face of dishonest or corrupt superiors. these individuals are loyal, honest and candid with their superiors. 

the 5 type of followers: 
  • the sheep - passive, lack commitment, require external motivation and constant supervision from the leader.
  • the yes-people - committed to the leader and the goal of the organisation. these conformist individuals don't question the decisions or actions of the leader. further, they will defend their leader when faced with opposition from others. 
  • the pragmatics - not trail blazers, don't stand behind controversial or unique ideas until the majority of the group has expressed their support. these individuals often remain in the background of the group. 
  • the alienated - negative and often attempt to stall/bring the group down by constantly questioning the decisions and actions of the leader. these individuals view themselves as the rightful leader of the organisation and critical of the leader and fellow group members. 
  • the star followers - exemplary individuals that are positive, active and independent thinkers. don't blindly accept the decision to actions of a leader until they have evaluated them completely. further, these types of followers can succeed without the presence of a leader. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
measuring leadership (kouzes and posner, 1987) 
- argue that leadership is a 'measurable learnable, and teachable' set of behaviours. 
- developed the leadership practices inventory (LPI) to measure the extent to which an individual engages in each of the five practices of exemplary leadership which they established through the research with successful leaders. 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
the 5 practices of exemplary leadership:
  • model the way - sets a personal example of what they expect of others, is clear about their personal philosophy of leadership. 
  • inspire a shared vision - describes a compelling image of what the future could be like, appeals to others to share an exciting dream of the future. 
  • challenge the process - experiments and takes risk even when there is a chance of failure, challenges people to try out new and innovative ways to do their work. 
  • enables others to act - treats others with dignity and respect, supports the decisions that people make on their own. 
  • encourage the heart - praises people for a job well done, makes it a point to let people know about their confidence in their abilities.

- the LPI consists of the individual's self readings of the frequency with which they demonstrate these behaviours as well as a number of observer ratings. these are combined on the final profile. 
- kouzes and posner strongly believe that leadership is learnt rather than something one is born with. 
- this means that the profile that is produced after completion of the LPI doesn't simply provide a picture of the behaviours that someone exhibits but can be used to identify areas for personal development as well. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
the situational theory of leadership (hersey and blanchard, 1988) 
- proposed that there is no single effective leadership style. although leaders may have a preferred style, it is not appropriate for a leader to use the same style all the time. 
- a truly effective leader must be able to adapt their leadership style to suit the situation. 
- two key concepts in this model are: leadership style and the individual/group's maturity level.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
types of leader behaviour:
  • telling (S1) - largely directive, the dealer we define the role for the members of the group and will explain the group members how, when and where to do the task. 
  • selling (S2) - still directive but will involve more two way communication, will also involve the use of relationship skills that may allow the group members to 'buy into' the process. 
  • participating (S3) - leader provides less direction and this style is characterized by shared decision making. a high use of relationship skills is made. 
  • delegating (S4) - leader is still involved with the decision making process, but the responsibility has been delegated to the group. the leader is it likely to take a monitoring rather than a directive role. 
the levels of maturity:
  • M1 - the individual/group lacks the specific skills required for the job in hand and is unable and unwilling to do or take responsibility for the task. 
  • M2 - they are unable to take on responsibility for the task, however, they are willing to work towards it. they are enthusiastic but need more training and support. 
  • M3 - they are experienced and able to do the task but lacked the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility. 
  • M4 - they are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. they are able and willing to not only do the task, but also take responsibility for it. 

maturity levels are task-specific rather than person-specific. for example, a personal might generally be skilled and confident but may still be at M1 when they're asked to perform a task requiring skills they don't possess. 
Lösung ausblenden
  • 427 Karteikarten
  • 71 Studierende
  • 1 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen leadership and management Kurs an der Christ University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
evaluation - issues and debates 
(leaders and followers) 
A:
nature VS nurture debate: 
  • kouzes and posner argue the leadership is something that can be learnt rather than something which we are born with. 
  • by by exploring the personality characteristics of an individual, we can suggest different ways in which different types of people can be developed into successful leaders. 
individual-situational debate:
  • it should be possible to develop someone into the most successful type of leader based not only on their existing personality type and attitudes but also on the situation (group) which they are going to lead.
  • kelley shifts the focus from leaders to followers although does not directly address the question of whether followership qualities are born or made.  
  • kelley's work highlights the importance of the relationship between the leader and the situation; Hindi sketch the type of followers that the leader must lead. 
real-life applications: 
  • the work of danserau health for other by explaining the stages through which the leader-group member relationship follows. 
Q:
adaptive leadership 
- as organisations grow ever larger and more complex, it is possible to argue that traditional forms of leadership may be failing. 
- heifetz et al. (1997, 2009) introduce the concept of adaptive leadership. they define leadership as the 'art of mobilising people to tackle tough issues, adapt and thrive'. 
  • they argue that leadership itself has to change; that rather than leading by providing solutions, the leader of an organisation facing adaptive challenges must be able to shift the responsibility to the entire workforce.
  • the role of an adaptive leader is no longer to maintain and support the organisational norms and values, but to allow disorientation, conflict and challenge to create a new organisation that can survive. 
A:

six key principles of adaptive leadership:

  • get on the balcony - an adaptive leader needs to see the whole picture and hence, needs to observe from above.
  • identify the adaptive change - not only does the leader need to identify the need for change, but also determine the nature and extent of it. 
  • regulate distress - adaptive change may cause both, stress and distress, to those who are experiencing the same. this cannot be avoided, but needs to be managed. the pressure should motivate, not overwhelm. 
  • maintain disciplined attention - the leader must be open to contrasting points of view. rather than avoiding/covering issues up, they should be able to confront them directly. 
  • give the work back to the people - an adaptive leader must recognise that everyone in the organisation has special access to information that comes only from their experiences in their particular role. 
  • protect voices of leadership from below - the leader needs to listen to voices in the organisation, to learn of impending challenges. 



Q:
differences between leadership styles 
- traditional leadership VS adaptive leadership
A:
traditional leadership:
  • is about authority and issuing of directions to others 
  • is about maintaining organisational norms and traditions
  • makes use of the skills and competencies available
  • is about tried and tested solutions or directions based on prior experiences 
  • is useful in times of certainty

adaptive leadership:
  • is about helping others to find their inner authority 
  • is about challenging these norms and traditions, and exploring new ways of working 
  • pushes boundaries and attempts to extend skills and competencies
  • is about new solutions or new directions which have not been tested and have unknown outcomes 
  • is most useful in times of uncertainty
Q:
the three levels of leadership 
- introduced by james scouller in a book published in 2011. 
- the book explained how leadership presence can be developed and is sometimes referred to as the 3P model. 
- the 3P model includes three key elements: public leadership, private leadership and personal leadership. 

A:
public leadership:
  • concerns the behaviours required to influence groups of people in a public setting.
private leadership:
  • concerns the behaviours involved in influencing individuals in a private setting. 
personal leadership:
  • described as the inner level and relates to the leadership qualities shown by the individual. 
  • includes their skills and beliefs, but also their emotions, subconscious behaviours and their presence. 

Q:
evaluation - issues and debates
(traditional and modern theories of leadership)
A:
nature VS nurture debate:
  • the great person theory would certainly be on the nature side of this debate, while the other theories may leave room for development of leadership skills. 
  • scouller, in particular, would argue that leadership presents can be developed but the arguments proposed by heifetz et al. also suggest that leadership needs to be able to adapt and change. 
individual VS situational debate:
  • the 3P model clearly showcases that different skills will be required for different situations, and therefore, supports the situational side. 
  • heifetz et al. argue strongly for the need sorry adaptive leadership particularly where the more traditional styles of leadership have failed. this allows us to consider whether some individuals may be better able to provide adaptive leadership as well as considering the extent to which personal leadership skills may be developed. 
usefulness and application:
  • the theories discussed have been applied in organisations all over the world. 
  • they make a significant contribution to the success or otherwise of a wide variety of organisations. 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
leadership effectiveness 
- the theory of leadership effectiveness was proposed by fiedler (1967). it examines the interaction between the style of leadership and the situation.
- different leadership styles will be effective in different situations. this is not only because of the goals of an organisation, but also because different organisations will give their leaders differing amounts of power and control. 
A:
least preferred co-worker scale:
  • this 16-item questionnaire asks leaders about the person with whom they work least well. 
  • fiedler assumed that everyone's LPC is probably equally unpleasant and so, the LPC is not about the least preferred co-worker, but rather about the person taking the test. 
  • the analysis of the answers determine whether the individual has a low LPC score and is task-oriented or a high LPC and is relationship-oriented. 
  • a task-oriented leader may give harsh ratings to their least preferred co-worker while a relationship-oriented leader might give more positive ratings to even their LPC out. 
Q:
universalist and behavioural theories 
- universalist theories of leadership look at the personal qualities/characteristics which are shared by great leaders. 
- great man theory (woods, 1913) argues that great leaders are born and not made. 
- considering the notion of a charismatic or transformational leader; someone with the charisma and the interpersonal skills to inspire and lead others. 
- such people tend to have excellent public speaking skills and high levels of confidence. may be described as 'visionaries' and are often unconventional in their approach. 
A:
behavioural theories: 
look at the specific behaviours shown by leaders as opposed to the personal qualities of leaders. 
through further analysis, these behaviours were shown to fall into 2 distinct categories: 
  • initiating structure - includes allocating tasks to people, creating groups and defining their goals, setting deadlines and ensuring that they are met and making sure workers are working to a set standard. 
  • consideration - category of behaviours which are shown by expressing genuine concern for the feelings of the workers. such leaders establish a rapport with workers and show trust and respect. they listen to employees and improve performance by boosting self-confidence. 

a similar set of studies were conducted, which also produced 2 main types of behaviours shown by leaders: 
  • task-oriented behaviours - refers to behaviours which focus specifically on the task to be completed. leaders focus on the structure, will set targets and standards, supervise and monitor worker progress.
  • relationship-oriented behaviours - these focus on the well being of the workforce. leaders may spend time examining and understanding the interpersonal relationships between the workers and those between workers and managers. 
Q:
evaluation - issues and debates 
(leadership style) 
A:
individual-situational debate: 
  • fielder examines the relationship between the individual (leader) and the situation directly and makes the point that different leadership styles will be effective in different situations.
  • hersey and blanchard take this further and state that the leader must be able to fit the leadership style to the situation and that the mark of an effective leader is the extent to which they are able to do this. 
  • this has obvious applications to organisations, and organisations that recognise the importance of the 'fit' between the leader and the group and can appoint leaders with the skills required to adapt their behaviour will be most successful. 
application in real-life: 
  • muczyk and reimann highlight the difference between making a decision and ensuring that the decision is implemented. 
  • this may love organisations to recognise that as with leadership in general, there are many styles and these tell suit different situations and groups. 
  • ensuring that the right leader is in charge will ensure the successful completion of the task. 
Q:
leader-member exchange model (danserau et al, 1995) 
suggests that leaders can treat their followers in 2 ways: they may treat some of them as trusted followers and others more formally. 
- conveys that each follower should be understood as independent and each leader viewed as unique. 
A:
the vertical dyad linkage theory claims -the relationship between a manager and their followers is developed through 3 stages.
role taking stage: 
  • this is where individuals become team members and meet their leader. 
  • leaders need to make expectations clear and team members need to make their skills and abilities evident to the leader so that they can determine how each person may contribute to the team. 
role-making stage:
  • members of the team become integrated into the team and begin work. this allows them the opportunity to further prove their skills as well as their ability to work with others.
  • the leader may then determine who becomes part of the in-group and who belongs in the out-group. 
role routinisation stage: 
  •  this is where in-group members and the leader engage in 'mutual and high quality leader and subordinate exchanges' which further develops their relationships. 
  • this can also lead to improvements within the group. 

study by erdogan et al. (2015) -
  • improvements within the group occur due to the out-group members attempting to communicate well with the in-group members as they're closely connected to the leader.
  • this may allowed them to achieve a move from the out-group to the in-group. 

danserau's individualised leadership model extends the theory by focusing on the one-to-one relationships between a superior and a specific subordinate, involving the supervisors investments in and returns from the subordinate, and the subordinates investments in and returns from the superior. 
Q:
followership (kelley, 1988) 
- followership refers to a role held by certain individuals in an organisation, team or group. 
- specifically, it is the way in which an individual actively follows a leader. 
- kelley (1988) claims that the success or failure of a group may not be solely down to the ability of a leader but may also be dependent on how well the followers can follow. 
A:
4 main qualities of effective followers: 
  • self management - refers to the ability to think critically, be in control of one's actions and to work independently. it's important that followers manage themselves well as highly desirable to delegate tasks to these individuals.
  • commitment - refers to an individual being committed to the goal, vision or cause of a group, team or organisation. this is an important quality of followers as it helps keep one's morale and energy levels high.
  • competence - it's essential that individuals possess the skills and attitudes necessary to complete the goal or task. individuals high in this quality e often hold skills higher than the average coworker. further, these individuals continue their pursuit of knowledge by upgrading their skills through classes and seminars. 
  • courage - effective followers hold true to their beliefs and maintain ethical standards, even in the face of dishonest or corrupt superiors. these individuals are loyal, honest and candid with their superiors. 

the 5 type of followers: 
  • the sheep - passive, lack commitment, require external motivation and constant supervision from the leader.
  • the yes-people - committed to the leader and the goal of the organisation. these conformist individuals don't question the decisions or actions of the leader. further, they will defend their leader when faced with opposition from others. 
  • the pragmatics - not trail blazers, don't stand behind controversial or unique ideas until the majority of the group has expressed their support. these individuals often remain in the background of the group. 
  • the alienated - negative and often attempt to stall/bring the group down by constantly questioning the decisions and actions of the leader. these individuals view themselves as the rightful leader of the organisation and critical of the leader and fellow group members. 
  • the star followers - exemplary individuals that are positive, active and independent thinkers. don't blindly accept the decision to actions of a leader until they have evaluated them completely. further, these types of followers can succeed without the presence of a leader. 
Q:
measuring leadership (kouzes and posner, 1987) 
- argue that leadership is a 'measurable learnable, and teachable' set of behaviours. 
- developed the leadership practices inventory (LPI) to measure the extent to which an individual engages in each of the five practices of exemplary leadership which they established through the research with successful leaders. 
A:
the 5 practices of exemplary leadership:
  • model the way - sets a personal example of what they expect of others, is clear about their personal philosophy of leadership. 
  • inspire a shared vision - describes a compelling image of what the future could be like, appeals to others to share an exciting dream of the future. 
  • challenge the process - experiments and takes risk even when there is a chance of failure, challenges people to try out new and innovative ways to do their work. 
  • enables others to act - treats others with dignity and respect, supports the decisions that people make on their own. 
  • encourage the heart - praises people for a job well done, makes it a point to let people know about their confidence in their abilities.

- the LPI consists of the individual's self readings of the frequency with which they demonstrate these behaviours as well as a number of observer ratings. these are combined on the final profile. 
- kouzes and posner strongly believe that leadership is learnt rather than something one is born with. 
- this means that the profile that is produced after completion of the LPI doesn't simply provide a picture of the behaviours that someone exhibits but can be used to identify areas for personal development as well. 
Q:
the situational theory of leadership (hersey and blanchard, 1988) 
- proposed that there is no single effective leadership style. although leaders may have a preferred style, it is not appropriate for a leader to use the same style all the time. 
- a truly effective leader must be able to adapt their leadership style to suit the situation. 
- two key concepts in this model are: leadership style and the individual/group's maturity level.
A:
types of leader behaviour:
  • telling (S1) - largely directive, the dealer we define the role for the members of the group and will explain the group members how, when and where to do the task. 
  • selling (S2) - still directive but will involve more two way communication, will also involve the use of relationship skills that may allow the group members to 'buy into' the process. 
  • participating (S3) - leader provides less direction and this style is characterized by shared decision making. a high use of relationship skills is made. 
  • delegating (S4) - leader is still involved with the decision making process, but the responsibility has been delegated to the group. the leader is it likely to take a monitoring rather than a directive role. 
the levels of maturity:
  • M1 - the individual/group lacks the specific skills required for the job in hand and is unable and unwilling to do or take responsibility for the task. 
  • M2 - they are unable to take on responsibility for the task, however, they are willing to work towards it. they are enthusiastic but need more training and support. 
  • M3 - they are experienced and able to do the task but lacked the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility. 
  • M4 - they are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. they are able and willing to not only do the task, but also take responsibility for it. 

maturity levels are task-specific rather than person-specific. for example, a personal might generally be skilled and confident but may still be at M1 when they're asked to perform a task requiring skills they don't possess. 
leadership and management

Erstelle und finde Lernmaterialien auf StudySmarter.

Greife kostenlos auf tausende geteilte Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Altklausuren und mehr zu.

Jetzt loslegen

Das sind die beliebtesten leadership and management Kurse im gesamten StudySmarter Universum

LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

Technological University of the Philippines

Zum Kurs
Leadership

MacEwan University

Zum Kurs

Die all-in-one Lernapp für Studierende

Greife auf Millionen geteilter Lernmaterialien der StudySmarter Community zu
Kostenlos anmelden leadership and management
Erstelle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen mit den StudySmarter Tools
Kostenlos loslegen leadership and management