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Lernmaterialien für ANIMAL NUTRITION an der Central Mindanao University

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It is the minimum amounts of nutrients that is necessary to meet and animal's real needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation or work.

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Nutrient Requirement

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Carbohydrates are the ____ of carbon

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hydrates

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The organism that is responsible for souring milk by converting lactose into lactic acid.

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Streptococcus lactis

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This monosaccharide derivative results if the the hydroxyl group on carbon atom 2 of an aldohexose is replaced by an amino group.

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Amino sugars

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Fatty acids are classified as saturated (when there are only ____ bonds) and unsaturated (when there are carbon-carbon ___ bonds) 


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single; double

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The female sex hormones

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Estrogens

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Give one important naturally occuring hexose sugar

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Glucose/Fructose

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Barley after controlled germination and drying is known as malt, and malt is used in manufacturing Scotch malt whiskey and ___.

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beer

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Occurs as pentosans in arabinans

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L-Arabinose

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Caramel is formed when sucrose is heated into what temperature?

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200 degrees celcius

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It is generally restricted to carbohydrates that contains fewer than ten monosaccharide residues.

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Sugar

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The important example of monosaccharide that contains seven carbon atom.

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D-Sedoheptulose 

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen ANIMAL NUTRITION Kurs an der Central Mindanao University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

It is the minimum amounts of nutrients that is necessary to meet and animal's real needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation or work.

A:

Nutrient Requirement

Q:

Carbohydrates are the ____ of carbon

A:

hydrates

Q:

The organism that is responsible for souring milk by converting lactose into lactic acid.

A:

Streptococcus lactis

Q:

This monosaccharide derivative results if the the hydroxyl group on carbon atom 2 of an aldohexose is replaced by an amino group.

A:

Amino sugars

Q:

Fatty acids are classified as saturated (when there are only ____ bonds) and unsaturated (when there are carbon-carbon ___ bonds) 


A:

single; double

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Q:

The female sex hormones

A:

Estrogens

Q:

Give one important naturally occuring hexose sugar

A:

Glucose/Fructose

Q:

Barley after controlled germination and drying is known as malt, and malt is used in manufacturing Scotch malt whiskey and ___.

A:

beer

Q:

Occurs as pentosans in arabinans

A:

L-Arabinose

Q:

Caramel is formed when sucrose is heated into what temperature?

A:

200 degrees celcius

Q:

It is generally restricted to carbohydrates that contains fewer than ten monosaccharide residues.

A:

Sugar

Q:

The important example of monosaccharide that contains seven carbon atom.

A:

D-Sedoheptulose 

ANIMAL NUTRITION

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Eine der ANIMAL NUTRITION Zusammenfassungen auf StudySmarter | Central Mindanao University

UNIT 1: THE ANIMAL AND ITS FOOD

Foods or Feeds?

  • any material that after being ingested is capable of being digested, absorbed, and utilized.

Nutrient

  • chemical element/compound that's essential for normal body metabolism.
  • any feed constituent or group of feed constituents of the same general chemical composition that aids in the support of animal life.
  • a dietary essential (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and water) for one or more species of  animals.
  • supports cellular needs for water, fuels, structural constituents (skin, muscles, bones, nerves, fat) and metabolites regulation.

Essential or Indispensable Nutrient

  • required in the diet since the body cannot synthesize these nutrients in sufficient amount to satisfy metabolic needs.

Non-essential Nutrients

  • not needed in the diet since it's already manufactured by the body

Nutrition

  • processes which a living organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, uses, and excretes nutrients from food and other nourishing materials.
  • its primarily concern is the properties of food that build sound bodies and promote health.

Nutrient Requirement

  • minimum amounts of nutrients (energy, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins) that is necessary to meet an animal's real needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation or work.
  • but it does not include a safety margin in ration formulation.

Nutritive Value or NV

  • feed's protein, mineral and energy composition, availability of energy, and efficiency of energy utilization.

Functions of Nutrient

  1. Making up the structure of the animal body.
  2. Maintains health and wellness.
  3. Provides energy which can be stored in the body or transformed for vital activities.
  4. Builds and maintains body tissue.
  5. Controls metabolic processes such as growth, cell activity, enzyme production and temperature regulation.
  • Necessary for proper growth and functioning though the body can't produce them on its own in adequate quantities, so they must be obtained through food.
  • Digestive system must be functioning properly to make us of these nutrients.
  • It can be used by the body for its immediate needs or they can be stored for later use.

Nutrient Absorption and Formation by Plants

  • some animals eat meat as a source of nutrition (carnivores) and some animals (preys) somehow directly obtain their nutrition from plants.
  • most feed ingredients comes from plant sources.
  • plants incorporates simple nutrients into complex ones: 

               > carbohydates (main form of energy storage in plants)

               > lipids (formed from carbohydrates after photosynthesis and it is concentrated in plant seeds and form energy for germination &early plant growth)

               > proteins ( combination of amino acids and incorporates nitrogen, which is absorbed by the plant, to other elements (C, H, O))

Classification of Feedstuff

  1. Forages ( plant or plant parts other than separated grains that is fed to or grazed by domestic animals and it may be fresh, dry, ensiled (pasture, green chop, hay, haylage). 
  2. Concentrates ( feeds that are rich in energy and/or protein but low in fiber, such as corn, soybean meal, oats, wheat, molasses, etc.)
  3. Complete feeds
  4. By-product feeds and crop residues
  5. Specialty feeds
  6. Supplements, additives, implants

               > feed or feed mixture that is used to improve the nutritional value of the ration complementing the nutrients in the base feed. (supplement)

               > rich in one or more of protein, energy, vitamins or mineral, and, in combination with the base feeds which produces a more complete feed. (supplement)

Balanced Ration

  • complete feed that is formulated to provide a specific animal species and class with appropriate amounts of all nutrients required for maintenance and given level of performance.

Ration

  • refers to the 24-hour feed allowance for an individual animal.

               > vitamins

  • brought largely by photosynthesis

Roughage

  • bulky and coarse feed that is high in fiber (>18% crude fiber) but lower in energy than most concentrates.
  • For example, forage, hay, silage and haylage (sometimes called roughage).

Ensiled

  • plants materials preserved by anaerobic fermentation and typically stored in a bag, bunker, wrapped in bale or upright silo.

Silage

  • feed preserved by an anaerobic fermentation process in which lactic acid and volatile fatty acid (produced by fermentation) lower the pH of the silage. The low pH preserves the silage.
  • E.g. corn silage, haylage, high moisture corn

National Research Council (NRC) Classes of Feeds by Composition and Usage

  1. Dry forages and roughages (hay, straw, fodder, stover, hulls, and other products with >18% crude fiber (dry basis)
  2. Pasture, range plants, and forages fed green (all forage feeds that is either not cut (including feed cured on the stem) or cut and fed fresh)
  3. Silages (ensiled forages such as maize, alfalfa, grass, etc.)
  4. Energy feeds (products with <20% protein in dry basis and <18% crude fiber in dry basis (fish, grain, mill by-products))
  5. Protein supplements (products which contains 20% or more of protein in dry basis from animal origin, including ensiled products, as well as oil meals, gluten, etc.)
  6. Mineral supplements
  7. Vitamins Supplements 
  8. Additives ( feed supplements such as antibiotics, coloring materials, flavorrs, hormones and medicants)



Main Components of Food


  • Food

               > Water

               > Dry matter

                   - Organic ( carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, organic acids, vitamins, minerals)

                   - Inorganic

Water

  • major item in most animal's diet
  • water content of animal body varies with age
  • new born (neonates) contains 750-800g water/kg body weight but reduces to about 500g in mature fat animal
  • vital to life
  • contents should be maintained

Functions of Water

  • acts as solvent in which nutrients are transported about the body.
  • solvents in which waste products are excreted.
  • many of the chemical reactions is brought by the enzymes that takes place in solution and involves hydrolysis.
  • helps in maintaining and/or regulating body temperature because of its high latent heat of vaporization.

Sources of Water

  1. Drinking water
  2. Water present in the food
  3. Metabolic water (formed during metabolism by the oxidation of hydrogen containing organic nutrients.)

"Animals will normally drink water that is required for their daily activities."  which means dili pugson ug painom ug water unless necessary (??).

  • no evidence that under normal condition that excess of drinking water is harmful.
  • water content of foods: 60g/g in concentrates over 900g/kg in some root crops.
  • water content of growing plants: related to the stage of growth, being greater in younger plants.

Water Requirement of Animals

  • nature of the nitrogenous end products of protein metabolism excreted in urine influences water requirement.

Mammals

  • excrete urea (toxic to the tissues unless in dilute solution)
  • high protein diets increase the amount of water required for dilution of urea
  • ruminants require large of water to form a suspension of ingesta in the rumen, and thus have higher water requirement than non-ruminants.

Birds

  • have lower water requirement than mammals
  • excrete uric acid in a nearly solid form

Fish

  • excrete ammonia directly from the gills
  • may have such low water requirement that they never drink

AnimalLiters/dayPounds/day
Beef cattle22-6648-145
Dairy cattle38-11084-242
Sheep and goats4-159-33
Horses30-4566-99
Swine11-1924-42
Chickens0.2-0.40.4-0.9
Turkeys0.4-0.60.9-1.3



  • water requirements are increased in cold weather since feed intake is increased.

  • mature beef cattle and sheep can rely solely on snow as water source but more productive feedlot and dairy animals must have free access to drinking water.

  • feedstuffs with high water absorbing characteristics (wheat bran and alfalfa hay), increase the water requirements.

  • animals are more sensitive to lack of water than food. First noticeable effect of moderate restriction of water is a reduced intake of feed.

  • Severe restriction of water intake will result in rapid weight loss and body dehydrates. Water consumption is related to heat production.


Other Factors Affecting Water

Dietary Factor

  • dry matter is highly correlated with water intake at moderate temperature.
  • water content of feed consumed also affect total feed intake.
  • high level of protein intake and fats may also increase water intake.
  • consumption of common salt or other salts increase consumption and excretion of water greatly.

Environmental Factor

  • heat stress i.e the higher the heat the higher the water intake and vice versa.


           




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