Endocrinology at Cardiff University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Endocrinology an der Cardiff University

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the function of amino acid derived hormones
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Travel free in plasma or bound carrier proteins such as albumin to prolong half life

They act by binding to specific receptors on the plasma membrane within the cytoplasm or on the nucleus
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is neurosecretion
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When neurones secrete hormones such as in the hypothalamus
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are endocrine glands
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Organs that secrete a hormone into the bloodstream
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are 9 functions of hormones
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Regulate and integrate ionic and fluid balance

Energy balance

Metabolism

Growth and development

Reproduction

Regulate cell division differentiation apoptosis and motility

Secretion

nutrient up take

Regulate cellular processes such gene transcription protein synthesis protein degradation enzyme activity and protein conformation and interactions
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is autocrine
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When a hormone has an affect on the cell by which it was secreted as it contains a receptor for that hormone
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is paracrine
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When a hormone secreted by cell has an affect on neighbouring cells or regionally such as histamine
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the eight endocrine glands and their hormones
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Hypothalamus which secretes GnRH vasopressin somatostatin and dopamine

Pituitary gland which secretes growth hormone TSH FSH and LH

Thyroid gland which secretes thyroid hormones and calcitonin

Parathyroid glands which secrete parathyroid hormone

Adrenal glands which secrete cortisol aldosterone and androgens from the cortex and adrenaline and noradrenaline from the medulla

Pancreas which secrete insulin and glucagon

Testes which secrete testosterone

Ovaries which secret oestrogen and progesterone
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the pathway of hormones
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Produced by cells within endocrine tissues and travel in the bloodstream to target cells were they exert a regulatory affect
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a steroid hormone
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
A cholesterol derivative such as testosterone progesterone oestrogen and cortisol aldosterone

These diffuse into cells and bind to the intracellular receptors on the nucleus to modify transcription and gene expression
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the effect of steroid hormones
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Modify transcription and gene expression

They are hydrophobic but lipophilic so are carried bound to plasma proteins such as albumin

They are cleared from circulation slowly so have a long half life and a more sustained response




Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are peptide hormones
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Hormones such as growth hormones FSH oxytocin and parathyroid hormone
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the five steps of how hormone levels are controlled
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Sensory receptors gather information on the internal and external environment

The hypothalamus bridges the nervous system in the endocrine system

The hypothalamus produce the hormone to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland

This causes the release of a tropic hormone to stimulate an endocrine gland

Sensory receptors detect levels of these hormones to control secretion 
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What is the function of amino acid derived hormones
A:
Travel free in plasma or bound carrier proteins such as albumin to prolong half life

They act by binding to specific receptors on the plasma membrane within the cytoplasm or on the nucleus
Q:
What is neurosecretion
A:
When neurones secrete hormones such as in the hypothalamus
Q:
What are endocrine glands
A:
Organs that secrete a hormone into the bloodstream
Q:
What are 9 functions of hormones
A:
Regulate and integrate ionic and fluid balance

Energy balance

Metabolism

Growth and development

Reproduction

Regulate cell division differentiation apoptosis and motility

Secretion

nutrient up take

Regulate cellular processes such gene transcription protein synthesis protein degradation enzyme activity and protein conformation and interactions
Q:
What is autocrine
A:
When a hormone has an affect on the cell by which it was secreted as it contains a receptor for that hormone
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is paracrine
A:
When a hormone secreted by cell has an affect on neighbouring cells or regionally such as histamine
Q:
What are the eight endocrine glands and their hormones
A:
Hypothalamus which secretes GnRH vasopressin somatostatin and dopamine

Pituitary gland which secretes growth hormone TSH FSH and LH

Thyroid gland which secretes thyroid hormones and calcitonin

Parathyroid glands which secrete parathyroid hormone

Adrenal glands which secrete cortisol aldosterone and androgens from the cortex and adrenaline and noradrenaline from the medulla

Pancreas which secrete insulin and glucagon

Testes which secrete testosterone

Ovaries which secret oestrogen and progesterone
Q:
What is the pathway of hormones
A:
Produced by cells within endocrine tissues and travel in the bloodstream to target cells were they exert a regulatory affect
Q:
What is a steroid hormone
A:
A cholesterol derivative such as testosterone progesterone oestrogen and cortisol aldosterone

These diffuse into cells and bind to the intracellular receptors on the nucleus to modify transcription and gene expression
Q:
What is the effect of steroid hormones
A:
Modify transcription and gene expression

They are hydrophobic but lipophilic so are carried bound to plasma proteins such as albumin

They are cleared from circulation slowly so have a long half life and a more sustained response




Q:
What are peptide hormones
A:
Hormones such as growth hormones FSH oxytocin and parathyroid hormone
Q:
What are the five steps of how hormone levels are controlled
A:
Sensory receptors gather information on the internal and external environment

The hypothalamus bridges the nervous system in the endocrine system

The hypothalamus produce the hormone to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland

This causes the release of a tropic hormone to stimulate an endocrine gland

Sensory receptors detect levels of these hormones to control secretion 
Endocrinology

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