Cognitive Psychology at Cagayan State University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Cognitive Psychology an der Cagayan State University

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Everyday Cognitive Failures


Name 3 cognitive processes and consequences of failure?

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(1) Perception: Interpreting sensory information

  • Failure to discern stimuli, misperception, misinterpretation


(2) Attention: focusing on certain stimuli

  • Preoccupation, unawareness, failure to concentrate


(3) Comprehension: understanding oral or written communication

  • Misunderstandings, misclassification, misinterpretation etc.


(4) Learning: Relatively permanent change in performance

  • Unorganized material, failure to associate with already known information and to understand the meaning


(5) Retention: storage and retrieval of encoded memories

  • Failure to attend or to remember, failure to create distinctive cues etc.


(6) Reasoning: inferring conclusions from premises or initial information

  • Misjudgment, failure to evaluate key elements and see the bigger picture, overinclusiveness, prejudice, bias


(7) Problem-solving

  • Failure to understand the problem and to break problems down, persistence in doing things as before


(8) Communication

  • Misinformation, too much o. little information, deception, distortions


(9) Planning

  • Shortsightedness, carelessness, negligence, impulsiveness, compulsiveness, perseveration, inaccuracy, inconsistency
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What is Cognitive Psychology?

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The study of how the brain processes information


  • mental processes that are involved in acquiring & making use of knowledge and experience gained from our senses
  • mental processes of cognition: perception, learning, memory storage, retrieval and thinking
    • involved in (1) information uptake & representation (2) information processing and interaction /w the environment


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Visual system

Visual pathway

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  1. Light travels through the lens to the retina at the back of the eyeball
  2. The photoreceptor cells (rod & cons) in the retina absorb and convert light into signals that can change membrane potential → phototransduction
  3. information is sent via optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus, relay center in thalamus for visual pathway) → occipital lobe to primary visual cortex
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Quality/Physics of Sound

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  • Longitudinal pressure wave
  • Frequency f
  • Amplitude A
  • Phase
  • Speed c
  • Direction
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What is NOT Applied Cognitive Psychology?

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  • It is NOT necessarily a superficial and pragmatic version of cognitive psychology
  • It overlaps with but is NOT just human factors, ergonomics, usability or cognitive engineering
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What is Applied Cognitive Psychology?

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concerned with the investigation of how cognitive processes affect our behaviour and performance in real-life settings

  • draws theories from basic research
  • highly interdisciplinary
  • often requires additional technical knowledge of specific domain/content


Goal

  • research enables us to find solutions for real-world problems
  • can help to improve and inform theoretical approaches to cognition (offering a broader and more realistic basis for our understanding of cognitive processes)
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What's the difference between Applied Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Psychology?

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Applied cognitive psychology

  • is conducted in more complex settings
  • strong emphasis on embedding and functioning of cog. systems in complex environment
  • more found in natural setting (↔️ controlled settings)
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Visual system

Retinotopic map

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  • how objects/images are represented in the brain
  • right visual field is reflected in left hemisphere (contralateral)
  • images is inverted
  • magnified at the center (cortical magnification)
    • due to "foveation" (only cones)
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Backward processing

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Same word ending can be interpreted as different words depending on context later on in the sentence

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Neuro-Cognitive Psychology

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Investigates how the brain is involved in certain metal processes


e.g., there are brain areas that are highly involved in certain modalities (occipital lobe mainly visual information)

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Face recognition

Factors influencing face recognition (Face inversion)

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Inversion

  • increased activation in brain areas specific for identification & recognition
  • interrupts configurational processing


  • local changes can easily be detected in inverted image (e.g., eyebrow)
  • spatial displacements are harder to detect (inverting of jaw)
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Name two strategies to cover up dropouts in ASA

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There is the competition for a frequency component, where a dropout occurs when two frequencies happen at the same time during a sequence, as they fuse. We can unmask the frequencies by adding another frequency to compete with the distorted grouping. 


In the old-plus-new strategy, noise is added to usually blank dropouts in speech. This way the speech is recognized as the old stimulus and the noise as the new and continuity is assumed.

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Q:

Everyday Cognitive Failures


Name 3 cognitive processes and consequences of failure?

A:

(1) Perception: Interpreting sensory information

  • Failure to discern stimuli, misperception, misinterpretation


(2) Attention: focusing on certain stimuli

  • Preoccupation, unawareness, failure to concentrate


(3) Comprehension: understanding oral or written communication

  • Misunderstandings, misclassification, misinterpretation etc.


(4) Learning: Relatively permanent change in performance

  • Unorganized material, failure to associate with already known information and to understand the meaning


(5) Retention: storage and retrieval of encoded memories

  • Failure to attend or to remember, failure to create distinctive cues etc.


(6) Reasoning: inferring conclusions from premises or initial information

  • Misjudgment, failure to evaluate key elements and see the bigger picture, overinclusiveness, prejudice, bias


(7) Problem-solving

  • Failure to understand the problem and to break problems down, persistence in doing things as before


(8) Communication

  • Misinformation, too much o. little information, deception, distortions


(9) Planning

  • Shortsightedness, carelessness, negligence, impulsiveness, compulsiveness, perseveration, inaccuracy, inconsistency
Q:

What is Cognitive Psychology?

A:

The study of how the brain processes information


  • mental processes that are involved in acquiring & making use of knowledge and experience gained from our senses
  • mental processes of cognition: perception, learning, memory storage, retrieval and thinking
    • involved in (1) information uptake & representation (2) information processing and interaction /w the environment


Q:

Visual system

Visual pathway

A:
  1. Light travels through the lens to the retina at the back of the eyeball
  2. The photoreceptor cells (rod & cons) in the retina absorb and convert light into signals that can change membrane potential → phototransduction
  3. information is sent via optic nerve → optic chiasm → optic tract → LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus, relay center in thalamus for visual pathway) → occipital lobe to primary visual cortex
Q:

Quality/Physics of Sound

A:
  • Longitudinal pressure wave
  • Frequency f
  • Amplitude A
  • Phase
  • Speed c
  • Direction
Q:

What is NOT Applied Cognitive Psychology?

A:
  • It is NOT necessarily a superficial and pragmatic version of cognitive psychology
  • It overlaps with but is NOT just human factors, ergonomics, usability or cognitive engineering
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is Applied Cognitive Psychology?

A:

concerned with the investigation of how cognitive processes affect our behaviour and performance in real-life settings

  • draws theories from basic research
  • highly interdisciplinary
  • often requires additional technical knowledge of specific domain/content


Goal

  • research enables us to find solutions for real-world problems
  • can help to improve and inform theoretical approaches to cognition (offering a broader and more realistic basis for our understanding of cognitive processes)
Q:

What's the difference between Applied Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Psychology?

A:

Applied cognitive psychology

  • is conducted in more complex settings
  • strong emphasis on embedding and functioning of cog. systems in complex environment
  • more found in natural setting (↔️ controlled settings)
Q:

Visual system

Retinotopic map

A:
  • how objects/images are represented in the brain
  • right visual field is reflected in left hemisphere (contralateral)
  • images is inverted
  • magnified at the center (cortical magnification)
    • due to "foveation" (only cones)
Q:

Backward processing

A:

Same word ending can be interpreted as different words depending on context later on in the sentence

Q:

Neuro-Cognitive Psychology

A:

Investigates how the brain is involved in certain metal processes


e.g., there are brain areas that are highly involved in certain modalities (occipital lobe mainly visual information)

Q:

Face recognition

Factors influencing face recognition (Face inversion)

A:

Inversion

  • increased activation in brain areas specific for identification & recognition
  • interrupts configurational processing


  • local changes can easily be detected in inverted image (e.g., eyebrow)
  • spatial displacements are harder to detect (inverting of jaw)
Q:

Name two strategies to cover up dropouts in ASA

A:

There is the competition for a frequency component, where a dropout occurs when two frequencies happen at the same time during a sequence, as they fuse. We can unmask the frequencies by adding another frequency to compete with the distorted grouping. 


In the old-plus-new strategy, noise is added to usually blank dropouts in speech. This way the speech is recognized as the old stimulus and the noise as the new and continuity is assumed.

Cognitive Psychology

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