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Describe the anatomy and function of the cerebellum. 


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Anatomy of the cerebellum

  • It is only second to the cerebrum in size, and it occupies the inferior and posterior side of the cranial cavity.
  • It is located inferior to the occipital lobes, and posterior to the pons and medulla oblongata.
  • Anatomically it appears as a separate structure attached the bottom of the brain, it is tucked below the cerebral hemispheres.
  • The cortical surface is covered with finely spaced parallel grooves. These grooves are known as folia, and they contain several types of neurons in a regular arrangement. They in purkinje cells and granule cells.
  • The hemisphere of the cerebellum is separate by vermis in the middle.

Functions

  • It plays a very important in the motor control, motor learning, co-ordination, and balance.
  • It may also be involved in some cognitive functions like, attention and language, and regulating fear and pleasure responses.
  • The main function of the cerebellum is to evaluate the movements are being initiated by the cerebrum.
  • Things like: coordinating and voluntary movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone.
  •  It has a job in fine tuning the goal directed movements in the motor cortex.
  • It is also involved in planning and learning new skills with its reciprocal connections with the cortex and the thalamus.
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Name two peripheral nervous system neuroglial cells.

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Schwann and Satellite cells 

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Outline using a diagram, the organisation of the human nervous system.


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Nervous system

PNS - CNS

CNS - Brain and spinal cord

PNS – Motor neurones and sensory neurones

Motor neurones – Autonomic and Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system – Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous system 

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Outline the functions of the following bone cell types. 

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Osteoclastic cells – develop into osteoblasts - only cell to be undergoing active division all the time – derived from embryonic stem cells.

Osteoblasts – Bone building cells – secrete osteoid matrix and collagen fibres – some develop into osteocytes.

Osteocytes – trapped osteoblasts – maintain bone tissue

Osteoclasts – Largest bone cell – they are responsible for bone resorption – the cell is fused from 5-7 monocytes

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Compare and contrast the differences between the two mechanisms for the phosphorylation of ATP – you may use a table if you wish. 


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Pathway 1

  • There is a substrate level of phosphorylation
  • Single reaction
  • There is a straight transformation from phosphorylation into ADP intermediary
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm
  • This is the minor pathway

Pathway 2

  • This is oxidative phosphorylation
  • Multiple redox reactions
  • Uses the electron transport chain
  • Occurs in the inner cellular membrane of the mitochondria
  • This is the major pathway
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Compare and contrast the characteristic of smooth muscle with  skeletal muscle.

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Smooth muscle and Skeletal muscle only have one aspect in common which is the fibres are not branched.

Smooth muscle is involuntary movement whereas the skeletal muscle is voluntary movement.

Smooth muscle has slow wave like contractions whereas skeletal muscles contracts quickly.

Smooth muscle is found in the gut or organ walls etc the stomach, whereas skeletal muscle covers the whole human body.

Smooth muscle contracts slowly whereas skeletal muscle contracts quickly.

Smooth muscle has a high regeneration whereas skeletal muscle has limited regeneration.

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Name the 2 forms of neuronal signal conduction. 

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Saltatory and Continuous

Saltatory is in myelinated 

Continuous is in non-myenlinated

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Compare & contrast the feature of a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. You may tabulate your answer if you wish. 

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Prokaryotic cell

  • Unicellular organisms
  • Generally small cells
  • Genetic material unprotected
  • Free DNA in the cytoplasm – no real nucleus
  • Very few internal structures

Eukaryotic cell

  • Generally large cells with a complex intracellular structure
  • Complex cellular cytoskeleton to provide structure and shape. 
  • Contains a true nucleus that protects the genetic material.
  • Most living organisms and plants are eukaryotes
  • Variety of intracellular organelles.
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Compare and contrast the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system 


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Somatic nervous system

  • Both sensory and motor neurons
  • Input from somatic receptors (thermal, pain, tactile, proprioceptive sensations) and from receptors for the special senses (hearing, sight, taste, smell, and equilibrium)
  • Somatic motor neurones innervate the skeletal muscle for voluntary and reflex movements.
  • When a somatic motor neuron stimulates the skeletal muscle, it contracts which is known as excitation.
  • One neuron connects the CNS to the organ.

Autonomic nervous system

  • Main input is from autonomic (visceral) sensory neurons
  • Anatomically, two neurons are needed to connect the CNS to the organ, preganglionic and postganglionic neurons.
  • It is associated with sensory receptors in the blood vessels, visceral organs, muscles, and nervous system that monitor the condition of the internal environment.
  • It regulated the inhibition of cardiac, smooth muscle and certain glands.
  • Signals are from the general somatic and special senses in the limbic system, this also has responses on the autonomic motor neurons.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Outline the structure and functions of lysosomes and perioxisomes in the eukaryotic cell. 


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Lysosomes

  • Carrier of membranous sacs of varying size that contain acid hydrolase enzymes.
  • They are a digestive plant for proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
  • They are part cellular apoptosis
  • They can combine with phagocytic vesicles for the digestion of invading organisms
  • Transports undigested material to the cell membrane for removal
  • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes called suicide sacs.

Peroxisomes

  • Very similar to lysosomes
  • Contains different enzymes, oxidative enzymes, peroxidases, catalases etc.
  • They are involved in the breakdown of fatty acids.
  • Involved in detoxification for toxins such as alcohol.
  • They are a defence mechanism against invading organisms like oxidative burst.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Outline how lining epithelium can be classified on the basis of cell structure/shape 


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Cells in the epithelium tissue are in continuous sheets, either in single or multiple layers

There are 3 cell shapes:

Squamous – They are thin cells, they are arranged like floor tiles, and they have the responsibility for rapid passage of substances.

Cuboidal – They are either cubes or hexagon, may have microvilli or cilia, function in secretion and absorption.

Columnar – May have cilia or microvilli, they specialise in the secretion and absorption.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the transmission of the nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction.


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NMJ

Muscle action potential starts at the NMJ synapse

The synapse is a communication between the neuron and a target cell or 2 neurons

Gap between 2 cells is called the synaptic cleft

The nerve transmission is connected through an electrical impulse to a chemical message to cross synapse

The neurotransmitter involved is Acetycholine.

The Process

  • The nerve impulse arrives at the NMJ
  • Then the depolarisation of the presynaptic membrane allows an influx of calcium.
  • Next there is a release of Acetycholine from the synaptic vesicles into the cleft via exocytosis
  • There is 2x of Acetycholine that binds to the receptor on the motor end plate which opens the ion channels, usually NA+
  • Then there is an increased flow of NA into the muscle cell.
  • The muscle fibre is then positively charged which then allows a change in the membrane potential which leads to a muscle action potential.
  • The muscle action potential then leads down the sarcolemma to the T-tubule.
  • Acetycholine is then affected by an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase. This is in the extracellular matrix of the synaptic cleft; this degrades it to acetate and choline.
  • If there are any further nerve impulses, then more Acetycholine needs to be released, so step 2-6 is then repeated.

When the nerve impulses stop muscle stimulation, it stops very quickly because the acetylcholine is then broken down by acetylcholinesterase. 

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Q:

Describe the anatomy and function of the cerebellum. 


A:

Anatomy of the cerebellum

  • It is only second to the cerebrum in size, and it occupies the inferior and posterior side of the cranial cavity.
  • It is located inferior to the occipital lobes, and posterior to the pons and medulla oblongata.
  • Anatomically it appears as a separate structure attached the bottom of the brain, it is tucked below the cerebral hemispheres.
  • The cortical surface is covered with finely spaced parallel grooves. These grooves are known as folia, and they contain several types of neurons in a regular arrangement. They in purkinje cells and granule cells.
  • The hemisphere of the cerebellum is separate by vermis in the middle.

Functions

  • It plays a very important in the motor control, motor learning, co-ordination, and balance.
  • It may also be involved in some cognitive functions like, attention and language, and regulating fear and pleasure responses.
  • The main function of the cerebellum is to evaluate the movements are being initiated by the cerebrum.
  • Things like: coordinating and voluntary movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone.
  •  It has a job in fine tuning the goal directed movements in the motor cortex.
  • It is also involved in planning and learning new skills with its reciprocal connections with the cortex and the thalamus.
Q:

Name two peripheral nervous system neuroglial cells.

A:

Schwann and Satellite cells 

Q:

Outline using a diagram, the organisation of the human nervous system.


A:

Nervous system

PNS - CNS

CNS - Brain and spinal cord

PNS – Motor neurones and sensory neurones

Motor neurones – Autonomic and Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system – Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous system 

Q:

Outline the functions of the following bone cell types. 

A:

Osteoclastic cells – develop into osteoblasts - only cell to be undergoing active division all the time – derived from embryonic stem cells.

Osteoblasts – Bone building cells – secrete osteoid matrix and collagen fibres – some develop into osteocytes.

Osteocytes – trapped osteoblasts – maintain bone tissue

Osteoclasts – Largest bone cell – they are responsible for bone resorption – the cell is fused from 5-7 monocytes

Q:

Compare and contrast the differences between the two mechanisms for the phosphorylation of ATP – you may use a table if you wish. 


A:

Pathway 1

  • There is a substrate level of phosphorylation
  • Single reaction
  • There is a straight transformation from phosphorylation into ADP intermediary
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm
  • This is the minor pathway

Pathway 2

  • This is oxidative phosphorylation
  • Multiple redox reactions
  • Uses the electron transport chain
  • Occurs in the inner cellular membrane of the mitochondria
  • This is the major pathway
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Q:

Compare and contrast the characteristic of smooth muscle with  skeletal muscle.

A:

Smooth muscle and Skeletal muscle only have one aspect in common which is the fibres are not branched.

Smooth muscle is involuntary movement whereas the skeletal muscle is voluntary movement.

Smooth muscle has slow wave like contractions whereas skeletal muscles contracts quickly.

Smooth muscle is found in the gut or organ walls etc the stomach, whereas skeletal muscle covers the whole human body.

Smooth muscle contracts slowly whereas skeletal muscle contracts quickly.

Smooth muscle has a high regeneration whereas skeletal muscle has limited regeneration.

Q:

Name the 2 forms of neuronal signal conduction. 

A:

Saltatory and Continuous

Saltatory is in myelinated 

Continuous is in non-myenlinated

Q:

Compare & contrast the feature of a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. You may tabulate your answer if you wish. 

A:

Prokaryotic cell

  • Unicellular organisms
  • Generally small cells
  • Genetic material unprotected
  • Free DNA in the cytoplasm – no real nucleus
  • Very few internal structures

Eukaryotic cell

  • Generally large cells with a complex intracellular structure
  • Complex cellular cytoskeleton to provide structure and shape. 
  • Contains a true nucleus that protects the genetic material.
  • Most living organisms and plants are eukaryotes
  • Variety of intracellular organelles.
Q:

Compare and contrast the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system 


A:

Somatic nervous system

  • Both sensory and motor neurons
  • Input from somatic receptors (thermal, pain, tactile, proprioceptive sensations) and from receptors for the special senses (hearing, sight, taste, smell, and equilibrium)
  • Somatic motor neurones innervate the skeletal muscle for voluntary and reflex movements.
  • When a somatic motor neuron stimulates the skeletal muscle, it contracts which is known as excitation.
  • One neuron connects the CNS to the organ.

Autonomic nervous system

  • Main input is from autonomic (visceral) sensory neurons
  • Anatomically, two neurons are needed to connect the CNS to the organ, preganglionic and postganglionic neurons.
  • It is associated with sensory receptors in the blood vessels, visceral organs, muscles, and nervous system that monitor the condition of the internal environment.
  • It regulated the inhibition of cardiac, smooth muscle and certain glands.
  • Signals are from the general somatic and special senses in the limbic system, this also has responses on the autonomic motor neurons.
Q:

Outline the structure and functions of lysosomes and perioxisomes in the eukaryotic cell. 


A:

Lysosomes

  • Carrier of membranous sacs of varying size that contain acid hydrolase enzymes.
  • They are a digestive plant for proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
  • They are part cellular apoptosis
  • They can combine with phagocytic vesicles for the digestion of invading organisms
  • Transports undigested material to the cell membrane for removal
  • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes called suicide sacs.

Peroxisomes

  • Very similar to lysosomes
  • Contains different enzymes, oxidative enzymes, peroxidases, catalases etc.
  • They are involved in the breakdown of fatty acids.
  • Involved in detoxification for toxins such as alcohol.
  • They are a defence mechanism against invading organisms like oxidative burst.
Q:

Outline how lining epithelium can be classified on the basis of cell structure/shape 


A:

Cells in the epithelium tissue are in continuous sheets, either in single or multiple layers

There are 3 cell shapes:

Squamous – They are thin cells, they are arranged like floor tiles, and they have the responsibility for rapid passage of substances.

Cuboidal – They are either cubes or hexagon, may have microvilli or cilia, function in secretion and absorption.

Columnar – May have cilia or microvilli, they specialise in the secretion and absorption.

Q:

Describe the transmission of the nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction.


A:

NMJ

Muscle action potential starts at the NMJ synapse

The synapse is a communication between the neuron and a target cell or 2 neurons

Gap between 2 cells is called the synaptic cleft

The nerve transmission is connected through an electrical impulse to a chemical message to cross synapse

The neurotransmitter involved is Acetycholine.

The Process

  • The nerve impulse arrives at the NMJ
  • Then the depolarisation of the presynaptic membrane allows an influx of calcium.
  • Next there is a release of Acetycholine from the synaptic vesicles into the cleft via exocytosis
  • There is 2x of Acetycholine that binds to the receptor on the motor end plate which opens the ion channels, usually NA+
  • Then there is an increased flow of NA into the muscle cell.
  • The muscle fibre is then positively charged which then allows a change in the membrane potential which leads to a muscle action potential.
  • The muscle action potential then leads down the sarcolemma to the T-tubule.
  • Acetycholine is then affected by an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase. This is in the extracellular matrix of the synaptic cleft; this degrades it to acetate and choline.
  • If there are any further nerve impulses, then more Acetycholine needs to be released, so step 2-6 is then repeated.

When the nerve impulses stop muscle stimulation, it stops very quickly because the acetylcholine is then broken down by acetylcholinesterase. 

Human Function 1 Revision Questions

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