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Lernmaterialien für Using Resources an der Birmingham City University

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What is Titration

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  • Titrations are neutralisation reactions between an acid and alkali
  • Neutralisation reactions form salt and water as products
  • Titration is the method of finding the amount of acid needed to be added to an alkali to neutralise it (and vice versa)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Titration Method

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  1. Fill a clean, dry burette with acid
  2. In a clean, dry pipette, transfer 25cm3 of an alkali into a conical flask
  3. Add a few drops of suitable indicator to the alkali and note the starting volume
  4. Gradually add acid into the flask and swirl, stop when the acid turns colourless
  5. Note the new volume and repeat the process until a set of (>2) concordant results is obtained
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Examples of composites

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  • Fibre Glass and CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) - where Fibres are low in density and are high in tension, making it flexible but not easily stretched; while the matrix of polymer resin binds the fibres together
  • Concrete - made of sand and stones bound together by cement and water
  • Wood - is a composite made of cellulose fibres and lignin
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Bioleeching

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Is a method of extracting low grade copper using bacteria:

  1. bacteria gain energy by breaking weak copper-sulfate bonds 
  2. when the bonds are broken, pure copper is left separated
  3. this method is cheap and releases no harmful emissions
  4. however, it is also much slower than many other methods
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Phytomining

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  • Uses plants to extract copper from soil
  • After plant is grown, it is burned to collect copper compounds from the ashes
  • Electrolysis is then used to separate the copper
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Flash distillation 

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  • Flash Distillation - boils water to leave behind sediments present
  • Flash distillation is an expensive process as it lowers the pressure of the water so it boils at a lower temperature
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Reverse Osmosis

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  • Cheaper than flash distillation as no heat is required
  • Uses pressure to pass water through permeable membranes to separate large unwanted ions from water 
  • However, deposits of salts in water may corrode pumps meaning they need to be replaced
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Waste Water Treatment Process

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  1. Screening - removes large objects a4nd gr44it
  2. Sedimentation - removes sewage sludge from effluent
  3. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge 
  4. Aerobic digestion of effluent
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Why do ceramics have its properties

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  • Ceramics for strong ionic and covalent bonds making them extremely difficult to break using heat 
  • However, their crystalline structure means there is very little opportunity for particles to slide over each other meaning they break easily under physical force
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Soda-Lime glass

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  • Made of sand (silicon dioxide), limestone (calcium carbonate) and soda (sodium carbonate)
  • The most commonly used type of glass (>90%)
  • Made by melting sand to form ionic and covalent bonds
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Borosilicate Glass

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  • Made of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) and Boron Trioxide (B2O3)
  • Used in apparatus that need a high resistance to heat such as ovenware and test tubes
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Composites

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  • Composites are made of 2 or more different types of material
  • They are comprised of a matrix and reinforcement
  • Reinforcement - material that makes up the bulk of the composite
  • Matrix - substance that binds the reinforcement together
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Q:

What is Titration

A:
  • Titrations are neutralisation reactions between an acid and alkali
  • Neutralisation reactions form salt and water as products
  • Titration is the method of finding the amount of acid needed to be added to an alkali to neutralise it (and vice versa)
Q:

Titration Method

A:
  1. Fill a clean, dry burette with acid
  2. In a clean, dry pipette, transfer 25cm3 of an alkali into a conical flask
  3. Add a few drops of suitable indicator to the alkali and note the starting volume
  4. Gradually add acid into the flask and swirl, stop when the acid turns colourless
  5. Note the new volume and repeat the process until a set of (>2) concordant results is obtained
Q:

Examples of composites

A:
  • Fibre Glass and CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) - where Fibres are low in density and are high in tension, making it flexible but not easily stretched; while the matrix of polymer resin binds the fibres together
  • Concrete - made of sand and stones bound together by cement and water
  • Wood - is a composite made of cellulose fibres and lignin
Q:

Bioleeching

A:

Is a method of extracting low grade copper using bacteria:

  1. bacteria gain energy by breaking weak copper-sulfate bonds 
  2. when the bonds are broken, pure copper is left separated
  3. this method is cheap and releases no harmful emissions
  4. however, it is also much slower than many other methods
Q:

Phytomining

A:
  • Uses plants to extract copper from soil
  • After plant is grown, it is burned to collect copper compounds from the ashes
  • Electrolysis is then used to separate the copper
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Flash distillation 

A:
  • Flash Distillation - boils water to leave behind sediments present
  • Flash distillation is an expensive process as it lowers the pressure of the water so it boils at a lower temperature
Q:

Reverse Osmosis

A:
  • Cheaper than flash distillation as no heat is required
  • Uses pressure to pass water through permeable membranes to separate large unwanted ions from water 
  • However, deposits of salts in water may corrode pumps meaning they need to be replaced
Q:

Waste Water Treatment Process

A:
  1. Screening - removes large objects a4nd gr44it
  2. Sedimentation - removes sewage sludge from effluent
  3. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge 
  4. Aerobic digestion of effluent
Q:

Why do ceramics have its properties

A:
  • Ceramics for strong ionic and covalent bonds making them extremely difficult to break using heat 
  • However, their crystalline structure means there is very little opportunity for particles to slide over each other meaning they break easily under physical force
Q:

Soda-Lime glass

A:
  • Made of sand (silicon dioxide), limestone (calcium carbonate) and soda (sodium carbonate)
  • The most commonly used type of glass (>90%)
  • Made by melting sand to form ionic and covalent bonds
Q:

Borosilicate Glass

A:
  • Made of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) and Boron Trioxide (B2O3)
  • Used in apparatus that need a high resistance to heat such as ovenware and test tubes
Q:

Composites

A:
  • Composites are made of 2 or more different types of material
  • They are comprised of a matrix and reinforcement
  • Reinforcement - material that makes up the bulk of the composite
  • Matrix - substance that binds the reinforcement together
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