Biopsychology at Birmingham City University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Biopsychology an der Birmingham City University

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define localisation of function 

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this is the theory that different areas of the brain are responsible for different behaviours processes, activities etc 

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explain the different functional centres 

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frontal lobe - motor area whihc is involved in voluntary movement and the broacs area which is respnsible for speech production 

parietal lobe - somasensory area sensory information from the skin is represented here 

occipital love - visual areas whihc recieves and processes visual information 

temporal lobe- auditory area  recives and processes auditory information from the ear and Wernicke's area responsible for language comprehension 

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explain how plasticity occurs in childhood and adulthood 

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the infant brain experiences a rapid growth in the number of synaptic connections peaking at age 2-3 years 

as we age the brain deletes rarely used connections and strengthen frequently used ones this process is known as synaptic pruning 

even as adult brains existing neural connections can change or new neural connections can be formed as a result from new learning 

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Define what is meant by an endogenous pacemaker 

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EPs are internal body clocks that regulate many of our biological rhythms. One example is the superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which influences the sleep wake cycle ( circadian rhythm) . The SCN receives information from the optic nerve about the external level of light. 

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Describe one study that investigated an ultradian rhythm 

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This sleep lab by Dement supports the idea of stages of sleep 

Procedure 

  • monitored the sleep pattern of 9 ppts in a sleep lab 
  • they controlled caffeine and alcohol consumption 
  • measured brain wave activity with an EEG

findings 

  • R.EM activity was positively correlated with dreaming 
  • ppts woken during REM activity gave vivid and accurate reports of their dreams 
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Describe one infradian rhythm 

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the menstrual cycle which has a duration of 28 days 

  • Rising levels of hormone oestrogen cause an egg to mature and be released 
  • womb lining develops 
  • womb lining comes away this is in the case of no fertilisation 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

evaluate plasticity and functionality 

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P- there is research support for the idea of brain plasticity 

E- research has found a significant increase in grey matter in various region of the brain after participants played video games for 30 minutes over a 2 month period

L- this matters because this provides clear evidence for brain plasticity and shows how experience (playing computer games ) can cause structural changes . 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

evaluate plasticity and functionality 

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P- a strength of this idea is the research support 

E- for example, Maguire(2000) experimented to examine whether structural changes in the brain could be detected in people with extensive experience of  spatial navigation . he found that the longer they had been on the job the more pronounced was the structural difference in the hippocampus 

E- this shows evidence of neural plasticity because the hippocampus plays a significant role in spatial navigation 

L- therefore, this supports the idea of brain plasticity and shows how experience and new learning can change the structure of the brain

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

evaluate localisation of function 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

P- a weakness of this idea is that it fails to take into account individual differences 

E- research has found that women have a larger Broca's area and Wernicke's areas than men which perhaps can explain the greater ease of language use amongst women 

E- this suggest beta bias as the difference between men and women are ignored and the size of areas observed during various language activities are not considered 

L- therefore, we are unable to generalise research examining localisation of function to males and females equally . so this idea of gender bias could lead to problems in the field of rehabilitation so we need to avoid assuming that rehabilitation strategies and techniques will be equally applicable to men and women 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

evaluate localisation of function

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

P- A strength of localisation of function of the brain is that there is evidence to support it 

E- for example a case study of Phineas Gage railroad worker had an accident where a metal pole shot through his skull, they asses his personality and interviewed people who knew him before the accident 

E- studies shown a significant change in his behaviour from previously being calm to short tempered

L- this study shows that the frontal lobe plays an important role in regulating mood and therefore this study supports the theory of localisation of function in the brain

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe one ultradian rhythm 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The sleep cycle has a duration of 90 minutes.

  • Stage 1 and 2 this is a light sleep tis is the slowing down of brain waves (alpha, theta ) 
  • stage 3 and 4 this is deep sleep, slow strong delta waves 
  • stage 5 REM sleep (rapid eye movement)  this is similar to a waking brain
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe one study that investigated the endogenous pacemaker 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Procedure 

  • Decourtsey took 30 chipmunks and destroyed the SCN connections 
  • they returned them in the wild 
  • they monitored them for 80 days 


Findings 

  • after 80 days a significantly higher proportion were dead 
  • presumably because they were awake and vulnerable to attack when they should have been asleep 
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  • 9 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Biopsychology Kurs an der Birmingham City University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

define localisation of function 

A:

this is the theory that different areas of the brain are responsible for different behaviours processes, activities etc 

Q:

explain the different functional centres 

A:

frontal lobe - motor area whihc is involved in voluntary movement and the broacs area which is respnsible for speech production 

parietal lobe - somasensory area sensory information from the skin is represented here 

occipital love - visual areas whihc recieves and processes visual information 

temporal lobe- auditory area  recives and processes auditory information from the ear and Wernicke's area responsible for language comprehension 

Q:

explain how plasticity occurs in childhood and adulthood 

A:

the infant brain experiences a rapid growth in the number of synaptic connections peaking at age 2-3 years 

as we age the brain deletes rarely used connections and strengthen frequently used ones this process is known as synaptic pruning 

even as adult brains existing neural connections can change or new neural connections can be formed as a result from new learning 

Q:

Define what is meant by an endogenous pacemaker 

A:

EPs are internal body clocks that regulate many of our biological rhythms. One example is the superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which influences the sleep wake cycle ( circadian rhythm) . The SCN receives information from the optic nerve about the external level of light. 

Q:

Describe one study that investigated an ultradian rhythm 

A:

This sleep lab by Dement supports the idea of stages of sleep 

Procedure 

  • monitored the sleep pattern of 9 ppts in a sleep lab 
  • they controlled caffeine and alcohol consumption 
  • measured brain wave activity with an EEG

findings 

  • R.EM activity was positively correlated with dreaming 
  • ppts woken during REM activity gave vivid and accurate reports of their dreams 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Describe one infradian rhythm 

A:

the menstrual cycle which has a duration of 28 days 

  • Rising levels of hormone oestrogen cause an egg to mature and be released 
  • womb lining develops 
  • womb lining comes away this is in the case of no fertilisation 
Q:

evaluate plasticity and functionality 

A:

P- there is research support for the idea of brain plasticity 

E- research has found a significant increase in grey matter in various region of the brain after participants played video games for 30 minutes over a 2 month period

L- this matters because this provides clear evidence for brain plasticity and shows how experience (playing computer games ) can cause structural changes . 

Q:

evaluate plasticity and functionality 

A:

P- a strength of this idea is the research support 

E- for example, Maguire(2000) experimented to examine whether structural changes in the brain could be detected in people with extensive experience of  spatial navigation . he found that the longer they had been on the job the more pronounced was the structural difference in the hippocampus 

E- this shows evidence of neural plasticity because the hippocampus plays a significant role in spatial navigation 

L- therefore, this supports the idea of brain plasticity and shows how experience and new learning can change the structure of the brain

Q:

evaluate localisation of function 

A:

P- a weakness of this idea is that it fails to take into account individual differences 

E- research has found that women have a larger Broca's area and Wernicke's areas than men which perhaps can explain the greater ease of language use amongst women 

E- this suggest beta bias as the difference between men and women are ignored and the size of areas observed during various language activities are not considered 

L- therefore, we are unable to generalise research examining localisation of function to males and females equally . so this idea of gender bias could lead to problems in the field of rehabilitation so we need to avoid assuming that rehabilitation strategies and techniques will be equally applicable to men and women 

Q:

evaluate localisation of function

A:

P- A strength of localisation of function of the brain is that there is evidence to support it 

E- for example a case study of Phineas Gage railroad worker had an accident where a metal pole shot through his skull, they asses his personality and interviewed people who knew him before the accident 

E- studies shown a significant change in his behaviour from previously being calm to short tempered

L- this study shows that the frontal lobe plays an important role in regulating mood and therefore this study supports the theory of localisation of function in the brain

Q:

Describe one ultradian rhythm 

A:

The sleep cycle has a duration of 90 minutes.

  • Stage 1 and 2 this is a light sleep tis is the slowing down of brain waves (alpha, theta ) 
  • stage 3 and 4 this is deep sleep, slow strong delta waves 
  • stage 5 REM sleep (rapid eye movement)  this is similar to a waking brain
Q:

Describe one study that investigated the endogenous pacemaker 

A:

Procedure 

  • Decourtsey took 30 chipmunks and destroyed the SCN connections 
  • they returned them in the wild 
  • they monitored them for 80 days 


Findings 

  • after 80 days a significantly higher proportion were dead 
  • presumably because they were awake and vulnerable to attack when they should have been asleep 
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