Biology 2 Notes at Athlone Institute Of Technology | Flashcards & Summaries

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What are the names of the main types of prokaryotic cells

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cocci, bacilli, spirilli

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What are differences between gram positive and gram negative bacteria?

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GN: Thin peptidoglycan layer (which makes up 10% of cell wall), has LPS on outer membrane

GP: Has thick peptidoglycan layer (which makes up 90% of cell wall),lacks an outer membrane, No LPS.

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What colour does Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria when adding crystal violet for gram staining?

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GP: Purple

GN: Colourless

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What colour does gram positive and gram negative bacteria have when adding saffranin?

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GP: Remains purple

GN: Pink/red

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What shape does bacillus have?

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Rod

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What shape does Coccus have?

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Round

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What are the functions of the cell wall?

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protects cell from changes of osmotic pressure, gives cell its shape and rigidity.

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What is the purpose of gram staining?

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Helps find what bacteria is present, to block the formation of peptidoglycan (using antibiotics).

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What's the function of fimbriae?

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Helps cells attach to other cells (eg. host cells)

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What's the function of pili?

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Helps transfer DNA to other bacterial cells.

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What enzyme breaks down peptidoglycan and where is this enzyme present?

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Lysozyme, in tears and saliva

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All bacteria are prokaryotic. What does that mean?

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It means that it is unicellular and lacks a nucleus, has a circular chromosome in the nucleoid.

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Q:

What are the names of the main types of prokaryotic cells

A:

cocci, bacilli, spirilli

Q:

What are differences between gram positive and gram negative bacteria?

A:

GN: Thin peptidoglycan layer (which makes up 10% of cell wall), has LPS on outer membrane

GP: Has thick peptidoglycan layer (which makes up 90% of cell wall),lacks an outer membrane, No LPS.

Q:

What colour does Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria when adding crystal violet for gram staining?

A:

GP: Purple

GN: Colourless

Q:

What colour does gram positive and gram negative bacteria have when adding saffranin?

A:

GP: Remains purple

GN: Pink/red

Q:

What shape does bacillus have?

A:

Rod

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Q:

What shape does Coccus have?

A:

Round

Q:

What are the functions of the cell wall?

A:

protects cell from changes of osmotic pressure, gives cell its shape and rigidity.

Q:

What is the purpose of gram staining?

A:

Helps find what bacteria is present, to block the formation of peptidoglycan (using antibiotics).

Q:

What's the function of fimbriae?

A:

Helps cells attach to other cells (eg. host cells)

Q:

What's the function of pili?

A:

Helps transfer DNA to other bacterial cells.

Q:

What enzyme breaks down peptidoglycan and where is this enzyme present?

A:

Lysozyme, in tears and saliva

Q:

All bacteria are prokaryotic. What does that mean?

A:

It means that it is unicellular and lacks a nucleus, has a circular chromosome in the nucleoid.

Biology 2 Notes

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