Microbiology - Aston University at Aston University | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Microbiology - Aston University an der Aston University

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What is microbiology?

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The study of organisms too small to be observed by the naked eye (<1mm diameter)

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What family of organism does Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) belong to?

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Bacteria

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What is the correct order of the binomial nomenclature? 

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Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species

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What family of organism does Zaire ebolavirus (Ebola) belong to?

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Viruses

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What family of organism does Plasmodium falciparum (Malaria) belong to?

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Bacteria

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Is the outer membrane more selective or less selective than the cytoplasmic membrane? Describe the periplasm and its possible functions.

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Gram-negative Bacteria have an outer membrane consisting of LPS (lipopolysaccharide), protein, and lipoprotein. Porins allow for permeability across the outer membrane. The gap between the outer and cytoplasmic membranes is called the periplasm and contains proteins involved in transport, sensing chemicals, and other important cell functions.


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What family of organism does Protothecis wickerhamii (Protothecosis) belong to?

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Fungi

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What four bacterial phyla contain the most well-characterized species?

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Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. 

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What is the smallest known microbe? 

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circovirus (20 nm)

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What are the major morphologies of prokaryotic cells?

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Prokaryotic cells can have many different shapes; rods, cocci, and spirilla are common cell morphologies. Morphology is a poor predictor of other cell properties and is a genetically directed characteristic that has evolved to best serve the ecology of the cell.

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Does the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotic cells provide shape and rigid support to the cell? Contrast the typical structure of the cytoplasmic membranes of Bacteria and Archaea. 

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The cytoplasmic membrane is a highly selective permeability barrier constructed of lipids and proteins that form a bilayer, hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside. In contrast to Bacteria and Eukarya, where fatty acids are ester-linked to glycerol, Archaea contain ether-linked lipids and some form monolayer instead of bilayer membranes. The major functions of the cytoplasmic membrane are permeability, transport, and energy conservation, and to accumulate nutrients against the concentration gradient, transport systems are necessary. 

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Why is the rigid layer of the bacterial cell wall called peptidoglycan? What are the structural reasons for the rigidity that is conferred on the cell wall by the peptidogly-can structure?

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Peptidoglycan is a polysaccharide found only in Bacteria that consists of an alternating repeat of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid, the latter cross-linked by tetrapeptides in adjacent strands. The enzyme lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin both target peptidoglycan, leading to cell lysis.

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Microbiology - Aston University Kurs an der Aston University - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is microbiology?

A:

The study of organisms too small to be observed by the naked eye (<1mm diameter)

Q:

What family of organism does Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) belong to?

A:

Bacteria

Q:

What is the correct order of the binomial nomenclature? 

A:

Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species

Q:

What family of organism does Zaire ebolavirus (Ebola) belong to?

A:

Viruses

Q:

What family of organism does Plasmodium falciparum (Malaria) belong to?

A:

Bacteria

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Q:

Is the outer membrane more selective or less selective than the cytoplasmic membrane? Describe the periplasm and its possible functions.

A:

Gram-negative Bacteria have an outer membrane consisting of LPS (lipopolysaccharide), protein, and lipoprotein. Porins allow for permeability across the outer membrane. The gap between the outer and cytoplasmic membranes is called the periplasm and contains proteins involved in transport, sensing chemicals, and other important cell functions.


Q:

What family of organism does Protothecis wickerhamii (Protothecosis) belong to?

A:

Fungi

Q:

What four bacterial phyla contain the most well-characterized species?

A:

Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. 

Q:

What is the smallest known microbe? 

A:

circovirus (20 nm)

Q:

What are the major morphologies of prokaryotic cells?

A:

Prokaryotic cells can have many different shapes; rods, cocci, and spirilla are common cell morphologies. Morphology is a poor predictor of other cell properties and is a genetically directed characteristic that has evolved to best serve the ecology of the cell.

Q:

Does the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotic cells provide shape and rigid support to the cell? Contrast the typical structure of the cytoplasmic membranes of Bacteria and Archaea. 

A:

The cytoplasmic membrane is a highly selective permeability barrier constructed of lipids and proteins that form a bilayer, hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside. In contrast to Bacteria and Eukarya, where fatty acids are ester-linked to glycerol, Archaea contain ether-linked lipids and some form monolayer instead of bilayer membranes. The major functions of the cytoplasmic membrane are permeability, transport, and energy conservation, and to accumulate nutrients against the concentration gradient, transport systems are necessary. 

Q:

Why is the rigid layer of the bacterial cell wall called peptidoglycan? What are the structural reasons for the rigidity that is conferred on the cell wall by the peptidogly-can structure?

A:

Peptidoglycan is a polysaccharide found only in Bacteria that consists of an alternating repeat of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid, the latter cross-linked by tetrapeptides in adjacent strands. The enzyme lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin both target peptidoglycan, leading to cell lysis.

Microbiology - Aston University

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