Organic Chem CHM261 at American University Of Middle East | Flashcards & Summaries

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# Lernmaterialien für Organic Chem CHM261 an der American University of Middle East

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Unsaturation is also called:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Index of hydrogen deficiency
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Name the following:
CH2CH=CHCH=CH2
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Pent-1,3-diene
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Calculate the unsaturations for the compound C5H8.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Max H: (2*C)+2
(2*5)+2= 12

2. Max H — actual H
12 - 8 = 4

3. Divide by 2
4/2 = 2 unsaturations
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Elements of unsaturation: Heteroatoms
• Halogens,X, replace hydrogens in hydrocarbons, so when
calculating unsaturations, count halides as hydrogens.   T/F

• Oxygen changes the C:H ratio so dont ignore.  T/F

• Nitrogen is trivalent, has valency of 3, so it acts like half a carbon.
so add the number of N atoms when calculating unsaturations.  T/F
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• Halogens,X, replace hydrogens in hydrocarbons, so when
calculating unsaturations, count halides as hydrogens.   T/F

• Oxygen changes the C:H ratio so dont ignore.  T/F  (O doesn’t change the ration, ignore it)

• Nitrogen is trivalent, has valency of 3, so it acts like half a carbon.
so add the number of N atoms when calculating unsaturations.  T/F
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Calculate the unsaturations for the compound C4H7Br
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
C4H7Br
1. Max H: (2*C)+2+N
(2*4)+2+0= 10

2. max H— (actual H + halogen)
10 – (7+1)= 2

3. Divide by 2
2/2= 1 unsaturation
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Whole unsaturation formula:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Unsaturation= 1/2 (2*C)+2+N ) — ( H+X )
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Calculate the no. of C-atoms in a compound that has 10 H-atoms and it’s no. of unsaturation is 1.
C?H10
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
C?H10
unsaturation= 1/2 ((2*C)+2+N)—(H+X)
1=1/2 ((2*C)+2+N)—(H+X)
1*2= (2*C)+2+0)—(10+0)
2= (2*C)+2— 10
2= (2*C)— 8
2+8= (2*C)
10=2*C
10/2=C
C= 5
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Sigma bonds around the double-bonded carbon are:
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
sp2
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Steps to naming alkenes:

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1) find longest continuous chain that includes the double-bonded carbons

2) number the chain in a way that the double bond has the lowest possible number.
( start closest to the double bond)

3) In a ring, the double bond is assumed to be between carbon 1 and carbon 2
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Calculate the unsaturations for C6H7N
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
C6H7N
1. Max H (2*C)+2+N
(2*6)+2+1 = 15

2. Max H— (actual H+halogen)
15–(7+0)= 8

3. Divide by 2
8/2= 4 unsaturations
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Rotation around the carbon-carbon bond is possible without breaking the pi bond.
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
False: the bond will break when rotated
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
pi bonding in ethylene:
each carbon has one unpaired electron in the p orbital
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
True
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Unsaturation is also called:
A:
Index of hydrogen deficiency
Q:
Name the following:
CH2CH=CHCH=CH2
A:
Pent-1,3-diene
Q:
Calculate the unsaturations for the compound C5H8.
A:
1. Max H: (2*C)+2
(2*5)+2= 12

2. Max H — actual H
12 - 8 = 4

3. Divide by 2
4/2 = 2 unsaturations
Q:
Elements of unsaturation: Heteroatoms
• Halogens,X, replace hydrogens in hydrocarbons, so when
calculating unsaturations, count halides as hydrogens.   T/F

• Oxygen changes the C:H ratio so dont ignore.  T/F

• Nitrogen is trivalent, has valency of 3, so it acts like half a carbon.
so add the number of N atoms when calculating unsaturations.  T/F
A:
• Halogens,X, replace hydrogens in hydrocarbons, so when
calculating unsaturations, count halides as hydrogens.   T/F

• Oxygen changes the C:H ratio so dont ignore.  T/F  (O doesn’t change the ration, ignore it)

• Nitrogen is trivalent, has valency of 3, so it acts like half a carbon.
so add the number of N atoms when calculating unsaturations.  T/F
Q:
Calculate the unsaturations for the compound C4H7Br
A:
C4H7Br
1. Max H: (2*C)+2+N
(2*4)+2+0= 10

2. max H— (actual H + halogen)
10 – (7+1)= 2

3. Divide by 2
2/2= 1 unsaturation
Q:
Whole unsaturation formula:
A:
Unsaturation= 1/2 (2*C)+2+N ) — ( H+X )
Q:
Calculate the no. of C-atoms in a compound that has 10 H-atoms and it’s no. of unsaturation is 1.
C?H10
A:
C?H10
unsaturation= 1/2 ((2*C)+2+N)—(H+X)
1=1/2 ((2*C)+2+N)—(H+X)
1*2= (2*C)+2+0)—(10+0)
2= (2*C)+2— 10
2= (2*C)— 8
2+8= (2*C)
10=2*C
10/2=C
C= 5
Q:
Sigma bonds around the double-bonded carbon are:
A:
sp2
Q:
Steps to naming alkenes:

A:
1) find longest continuous chain that includes the double-bonded carbons

2) number the chain in a way that the double bond has the lowest possible number.
( start closest to the double bond)

3) In a ring, the double bond is assumed to be between carbon 1 and carbon 2
Q:
Calculate the unsaturations for C6H7N
A:
C6H7N
1. Max H (2*C)+2+N
(2*6)+2+1 = 15

2. Max H— (actual H+halogen)
15–(7+0)= 8

3. Divide by 2
8/2= 4 unsaturations
Q:
Rotation around the carbon-carbon bond is possible without breaking the pi bond.
A:
False: the bond will break when rotated
Q:
pi bonding in ethylene:
each carbon has one unpaired electron in the p orbital
A:
True

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