Introduction To Global Health at AKAD Hochschule Stuttgart | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Introduction to Global Health an der AKAD Hochschule Stuttgart

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The demographic dividend 


(Canning et al. 2015)

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  • Demographic dividend = very favorable conditions for economic development
  • lower child mortality: children are more likely to reach working age 
  • lower fertility rates: fewer children born 


Combined: 

  • lower young age dependency ratio, while old age dependency ratio is (not yet) influential 
  • more resources per child (for health and education)
  • increasesed oppertunites for women to participate in the labour market 

-> First demographic dividend 

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Why government intervention? 1

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Health could be regarded as a normal good that you can purchase in a free market. However, there are several reasons for government interventions: 

  •  Health as a human right 
  • Equity concerns  
  • Market failure 
  • Externalities & public goods
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Vital registration

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  • Vital registration systems records births, deaths and causes of deaths 
  • an accurate system is key to having quality data on a population 
  • many low and middle income countries lack a vital registration system 
  • often there are cultural Barries to timely vital registration
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Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

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  • summary metric of population health
  • One DALY = one lost year of ''Healthy'' life 
  • a measurement of the gap between current health status and an ideal health situation 
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World Development Report

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  • Emphasizing the role of psychological and cognitive factors 
  • successful health promotion campaigns engage people emotionally and activate or change social norms as much as thy provide information
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Public sector responsible for

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  • Stewardship of the system
  • Raising the funds for the health system 
  • Making decisions about allocating these funds
  • Establishing approaches to health insurance 
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Goals 1-4

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  1. Eridicate extrem poverty and hunger 
  2. Achieve universal primary education 
  3. Promote gender equality and empower women
  4. Reduce child mortality 
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Causes of death 

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High income: 10 : 10 : 80

Middle income: 20 : 15 : 64

Low income: 50 : 10 : 40

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Communicable diseases

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Illness caused by a particular infectious agent that spreads directly or indirectly from people to people, animals to people, people to animals 

Also called infectious agent

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Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

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  • formulated in 2000
  • 8 MDGs and 15 core targets
  • countries that signed pledged to meet goals by 2015
  • all related to health, wether directly or indirectly 
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Goals 5-8

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  1. Improve maternal health
  2.  Combat HIV/Aids, maleria and other diseases 
  3. Ensure environmental sustainability
  4. Develop a global partnership for development 
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Why government intervention? 2

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Social dimension: impoverishment of health 

  •  Having to pay health services out-of-pocket 
  •  can lead to financial hardship and impoverishment - Globally around 150 million suffer severe financial hardship each year.  -100 million are pushed into poverty because they must pay outof-pocket at the time they receive them. 
  •  can be a barrier to access 
  • is regressive
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Q:

The demographic dividend 


(Canning et al. 2015)

A:
  • Demographic dividend = very favorable conditions for economic development
  • lower child mortality: children are more likely to reach working age 
  • lower fertility rates: fewer children born 


Combined: 

  • lower young age dependency ratio, while old age dependency ratio is (not yet) influential 
  • more resources per child (for health and education)
  • increasesed oppertunites for women to participate in the labour market 

-> First demographic dividend 

Q:

Why government intervention? 1

A:

Health could be regarded as a normal good that you can purchase in a free market. However, there are several reasons for government interventions: 

  •  Health as a human right 
  • Equity concerns  
  • Market failure 
  • Externalities & public goods
Q:

Vital registration

A:
  • Vital registration systems records births, deaths and causes of deaths 
  • an accurate system is key to having quality data on a population 
  • many low and middle income countries lack a vital registration system 
  • often there are cultural Barries to timely vital registration
Q:

Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

A:
  • summary metric of population health
  • One DALY = one lost year of ''Healthy'' life 
  • a measurement of the gap between current health status and an ideal health situation 
Q:

World Development Report

A:
  • Emphasizing the role of psychological and cognitive factors 
  • successful health promotion campaigns engage people emotionally and activate or change social norms as much as thy provide information
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Public sector responsible for

A:
  • Stewardship of the system
  • Raising the funds for the health system 
  • Making decisions about allocating these funds
  • Establishing approaches to health insurance 
Q:

Goals 1-4

A:
  1. Eridicate extrem poverty and hunger 
  2. Achieve universal primary education 
  3. Promote gender equality and empower women
  4. Reduce child mortality 
Q:

Causes of death 

A:

High income: 10 : 10 : 80

Middle income: 20 : 15 : 64

Low income: 50 : 10 : 40

Q:

Communicable diseases

A:

Illness caused by a particular infectious agent that spreads directly or indirectly from people to people, animals to people, people to animals 

Also called infectious agent

Q:

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

A:
  • formulated in 2000
  • 8 MDGs and 15 core targets
  • countries that signed pledged to meet goals by 2015
  • all related to health, wether directly or indirectly 
Q:

Goals 5-8

A:
  1. Improve maternal health
  2.  Combat HIV/Aids, maleria and other diseases 
  3. Ensure environmental sustainability
  4. Develop a global partnership for development 
Q:

Why government intervention? 2

A:

Social dimension: impoverishment of health 

  •  Having to pay health services out-of-pocket 
  •  can lead to financial hardship and impoverishment - Globally around 150 million suffer severe financial hardship each year.  -100 million are pushed into poverty because they must pay outof-pocket at the time they receive them. 
  •  can be a barrier to access 
  • is regressive
Introduction to Global Health

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